The main symptom of dengue is high fever that comes on suddenly and lasts about 2 to 7 days. In addition to fever, other symptoms such as a feeling of general malaise, nausea, vomiting, headache, excessive tiredness and red spots on the skin, for example, may be noticed.
Infectious Diseases 2022, December
Hand-foot-mouth syndrome is a contagious disease caused by the Coxsackie virus, which can be transmitted from person to person or through contaminated food and objects. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is most common in children under 5 years of age, but can also occur in adults.
Smallpox is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by a virus of the genus Orthopoxvirus, which can be transmitted through droplets of saliva or sneeze. Upon entering the body, this virus grows and multiplies inside the cells, leading to the appearance of symptoms such as high fever, body aches, intense vomiting and the appearance of blisters on the skin.
Treatment for dengue aims to relieve symptoms, such as fever and body aches, and is usually done with the use of paracetamol or dipyrone, for example. In addition, it is important to maintain hydration and rest to facilitate the fight against the virus by the body.
The child or baby may have dengue fever or suspect it when symptoms such as high fever, irritability and lack of appetite appear, especially during times of epidemics of the disease, such as in summer. However, dengue is not always accompanied by symptoms that are easy to identify, and can be confused with the flu, for example, which can cause the disease to be identified at a more advanced stage.
Coronavirus infection during pregnancy can happen at any week of pregnancy and usually causes the development of mild symptoms such as fever, general malaise and cough, being very similar to the flu. However, older pregnant women, who are obese, who have other conditions such as diabetes or hypertension, or who become infected after 28 weeks of pregnancy appear to be at greater risk of developing serious symptoms such as difficulty breathing and confusion, which may also in
Bacteria are small microorganisms that are naturally present in the body and in the environment and that may or may not cause disease. Bacteria that cause disease are known as pathogenic bacteria and can enter the body through ingestion of contaminated food or water, unprotected sexual contact or through the airways, for example.
Viruses are small infectious agents classified as obligate intracellular parasites, because in order to cause disease they need to be inside the cell. Diseases caused by viruses are popularly known as viruses and can affect people of all ages.
Mononucleosis, also known as kissing disease, infectious mononucleosis or mono, is an infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, transmitted through saliva, which causes symptoms such as high fever, soreness and inflammation of the throat, whitish plaques in the throat and in the neck.
Scarlet fever is a contagious disease caused by the group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus bacteria, which causes symptoms such as sore throat, high fever, intense redness of the tongue and itchy sandpaper-like skin. Although scarlet fever infection is much more common in school-age children between the ages of 5 and 15, it can also affect adults and is transmitted primarily through coughing and sneezing.
Treatment for hand-foot-mouth syndrome is aimed at relieving symptoms such as high fever, sore throat, and painful blisters on the hands, feet, or intimate area. The treatment should be done under the guidance of the pediatrician and the symptoms usually disappear one week after starting treatment, which can be done with:
White phlegm usually arises due to infections or respiratory inflammation such as bronchitis, sinusitis, or more complicated diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. But it can also be related to changes in the digestive system, such as reflux or food allergy, for example.
Zoonoses are infectious diseases transmitted from animals to people, which can be caused by bacteria, parasites, fungi or viruses. Cats, dogs, ticks, birds, cows and rodents are the main responsible for zoonoses, especially rabies, sporotrichosis, leishmaniasis, zika and cryptococcosis, for example.
Histoplasmosis is a systemic infection caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum, which can be transmitted by pigeons and bats, mainly. Histoplasmosis is more common and more severe in people who have a reduced immune system, such as people with AIDS or who have had a transplant, for example.
Streptococcus corresponds to a genus of bacteria characterized by having a rounded shape and being found arranged in a chain, in addition to having a violet or dark blue color when viewed under the microscope, being, therefore, called gram-positive bacteria.
Listeriosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, which can be found in soil, sludge and water, and can be transmitted through consumption of contaminated water and food, such as unpasteurized milk, cheeses, vegetables, fruits of the sea and sausage.
Escherichia coli, or E. coli, is a bacterium that naturally inhabits the intestines of people and some animals, without any sign of disease. However, there are some types of E. coli that are harmful to people and that enter the body through consumption of contaminated food, for example, causing gastroenteritis with severe diarrhea with mucus or blood.
Herpes zoster, or shingles, is an infectious disease caused by the same chickenpox virus, which can reappear during adulthood, causing red blisters on the skin, which appear mainly in the chest or belly region, although may also arise affecting the eyes or ears.
There are currently 5 types of dengue, but the types present in Brazil are dengue types 1, 2 and 3, while type 4 is more common in Costa Rica and Venezuela, and type 5 (DENV -5) was identified in 2007 in Malaysia, Asia. All 5 types of dengue cause the same classic symptoms, which include high fever, headache, pain in the back of the eyes and extreme tiredness.
Dengue transmission occurs during the bite of a virus-infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. After the bite, symptoms can appear between 5 and 15 days, and there may be headache, high fever, pain in the back of the eyes and body pain. Dengue is not contagious, that is, it cannot be transmitted from person to person, and it is also not transmitted through the consumption of food or water.
There are several diseases that fungi can cause in people, which can be mycoses of the skin, nails, mucous membranes or scalp, such as white cloth, ringworm, chilblains, thrush or candidiasis, for example. Generally, fungi coexist harmoniously with the body, but they can cause diseases when they manage to circumvent the body's protective barriers, which occurs mainly during periods of weakened immunity or skin injuries.
Venereal diseases, currently known as sexually transmitted infections, or STIs, are diseases transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse, which can be oral, vaginal or anal. Even if there are no obvious signs or symptoms of the disease, transmission to the sexual partner is possible.
Pyelonephritis is an inflammation of the kidneys that usually occurs when bacteria present in the urinary tract ascend through the ureters and reach the kidneys, causing inflammation and leading to the appearance of some symptoms such as pain in the lower back, constant urge to urinate, fever, malaise and pelvic pain.
Avian influenza is a disease caused by the influenza A virus, of type H5N1, H5N8, H7N9, H9N2 and, more recently, H10N3. Avian flu does not pass from one person to another, being transmitted mainly by direct contact with contaminated birds or by eating their meat.
Candida albicans is a fungus naturally present in the body without causing infection or symptoms. Normally Candida albicans can be found in various parts of the body, being more frequent in the vaginal mucosa of women, oral cavity, gastrointestinal and urinary tract.
Rotavirus infection is called rotavirus and is characterized by severe diarrhea and vomiting, especially in infants and young children between 6 months and 2 years of age. Symptoms usually appear suddenly and last about 8 to 10 days. Because it causes diarrhea and vomiting, it is important that measures are taken to prevent the child from becoming dehydrated, especially by increasing fluid consumption.
Ramsay Hunt syndrome is an infection of the facial and auditory nerve that causes facial paralysis, hearing problems, dizziness and the appearance of red spots or blisters in the ear area. This disease, also known as herpes zoster of the ear, is caused by the herpes zoster virus, responsible for chickenpox, which lies dormant in a ganglion of the facial nerve and which in immunosuppressed people, diabetics, children or the elderly, has a tendency to reactivate.
Rain and floods can transmit diseases such as ringworm, hepatitis and leptospirosis, as infectious agents can spread more easily. Therefore, contact with water should be avoided, especially during periods of flooding. However, if it is very necessary to come into contact with this type of water, to clean the house or recover objects, it is necessary to wear waterproof plastic boots or, alternatively, cover hands and feet with 2 or 3 bags plastic pieces, one on top of the ot
Cytomegalovirus, also known as CMV, is a virus from the same family as herpes, but it causes different symptoms such as fever, malaise and bloating. Like herpes, this virus is also present in most people, but it only causes symptoms when the immune system is weakened, such as in pregnant women, people with HIV or patients undergoing cancer treatment, for example.
Virus is the name given to any disease that is caused by a virus, which cannot always be identified. It is usually benign and does not require treatment with antibiotics, as these are not effective in eliminating viruses, and can only be treated with rest, hydration and measures to control fever, pain, vomiting and diarrhea, if these symptoms are present.
Typhoid fever is an infectious disease caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi, which can lead to the appearance of some symptoms, such as high fever, lack of appetite, dry cough, chills, enlarged spleen and red spots on the skin. Typhoid fever is related to low socioeconomic levels, mainly with poor sanitation and personal hygiene, and therefore, the transmission of this disease occurs mainly through the consumption of contaminated water and food.
Cholera is an infectious disease that can be acquired through consumption of water and food contaminated by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. This type of infection is more common and causes outbreaks more easily in places that do not have running water or inadequate sanitation, where there is no garbage collection or open sewage, for example.
Chagas disease is an infectious disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), which has an insect popularly known as barbeiro as an intermediate host, which, when biting a person, defecates or urinates, releasing the parasite.
Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan, intestinal parasite, responsible for amoebic dysentery, which is a gastrointestinal disease in which there is severe diarrhea, fever, chills and bloody stools or whitish secretions. Infection with this parasite can appear in any region and infect anyone, however it is more common in tropical regions with poorer sanitary conditions, especially affecting babies and children who like to play on the floor and have the habit of putting every
Yellow fever is a serious infectious disease that is transmitted by the bite of two types of mosquitoes: Aedes Aegypti, responsible for other infectious diseases such as dengue or Zika, and Haemagogus Sabethes. After the mosquito bite, symptoms may take up to 6 days to appear, and severe headache, high fever and generalized muscle pain may be noticed, for example.
Infectious mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus and is transmitted mainly through saliva and there is no specific treatment, as the body naturally eliminates the virus after about 1 month, being only indicated that the person remains at rest, drink plenty of fluids and maintain a he althy and balanced diet.
Onchocerciasis, popularly known as river blindness or gold digger disease, is a parasitic disease caused by the parasite Onchocerca volvulus. This disease is transmitted by the bite of a fly of the genus Simulium spp., also known as black fly or black fly, due to its resemblance to mosquitoes, which can normally be found along riverbanks.
Staphylococcus aureus, or S. aureus, is a gram-positive bacterium that is normally present on the skin and mucosa of people, especially the mouth and nose, without causing damage to the body. However, when the immune system is compromised or when there is a wound, this bacteria can proliferate and reach the bloodstream, causing sepsis, which corresponds to a generalized infection, which can lead to death.
Thrush is an infection in the baby's mouth caused by the fungus Candida albicans, which can occur in babies younger than 6 months due to the immune system not yet fully matured, but it can also affect babies at any age, leading to the emergence of symptoms such as small white dots or white patches on the tongue, which can often be mistaken for leftover milk.
Paronychia, also known as whirlwind, is an infection that occurs in the skin around the nail, which usually starts due to a skin injury, such as a traumatic action of the manicure, for example. The skin is the natural barrier against microorganisms, so any injury can favor the penetration and proliferation of fungi and bacteria, for example, leading to symptoms of inflammation, such as redness, swelling and local pain.