Cardiovascular diseases are a set of problems that affect the heart and blood vessels, and that arise with age, usually related to unhe althy lifestyle habits, such as a high-fat diet and lack of physical activity, for example. However, cardiovascular diseases can also be diagnosed at birth, as is the case with congenital heart diseases.
Heart Diseases 2022, December
High blood pressure (hypertension) is a chronic condition characterized by an increase in blood pressure above 140x90 mmHg. High blood pressure is also known as a silent disease, as in most cases it causes no symptoms, although some people may experience headaches, vision changes, or dizziness.
When blood pressure is high, above 14 by 9, it is accompanied by other symptoms such as severe headache, nausea, blurred vision, dizziness and if you have a diagnosis of high blood pressure, you should: Take the medicine indicated by the cardiologist for SOS situations;
Having swollen hands and fingers is a reactively common condition that arises mainly due to fluid accumulation or inflammation caused by poor blood circulation. Thus, this type of swelling is more frequent in those who consume s alt in excess or in women, due to the hormonal changes that occur in PMS, for example.
Cardiomegaly, popularly known as large heart, is not a disease, but a sign of some other heart disease such as heart failure, coronary artery disease, heart valve problems or arrhythmia, for example. These diseases can make the heart muscle thicker or the heart chambers more dilated, causing the heart to get bigger.
Saphenous bypass, also known as cardiac bypass or coronary artery bypass grafting, is a type of heart surgery in which a piece of the saphenous vein in the leg is placed in the heart to carry blood from the aorta to the heart muscle. This type of surgery is performed when there is an obstruction by fatty plaques in the heart vessels, which are the coronary vessels, which does not improve with other types of treatment and, therefore, increases the risk of serious complicatio
Heart pain is almost always associated with a heart attack. This pain is felt as a tightness, pressure, or heaviness under the chest lasting more than 10 minutes, which can radiate to other regions of the body, such as the back or arms, and is usually associated with tingling in the arms.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, corresponds to the feeling of heaviness, pain or tightness in the chest that occurs when there is a decrease in blood flow in the arteries that carry oxygen to the heart, this situation being known as cardiac ischemia.
Bradycardia is a medical term used when the heart slows down, starting to beat at a rate lower than 60 beats per minute at rest. Normally, bradycardia has no symptoms, however, due to the decrease in blood flow, caused by the decrease in heart rate, fatigue, weakness or dizziness may appear.
Aortic atheromatosis, also known as atheromatous disease of the aorta, occurs when there is accumulation of fat and calcium in the wall of the aorta artery, interfering with blood and oxygen flow to the body. This is because the aorta is the main blood vessel in the body, being responsible for ensuring the arrival of blood to various organs and tissues.
The cardiologist is the doctor responsible for taking care of heart he alth, being able to identify changes in the cardiovascular system and indicate the most appropriate treatment. Consultation with the cardiologist is indicated mainly when the person has symptoms such as chest pain or excessive tiredness, for example.
Dextrocardia is a rare congenital condition in which the person is born with the heart on the right side of the body, instead of the left, caused by problems in the development of the heart during pregnancy, or due to problems in other organs, such as liver, spleen or intestine, for example, causing the heart to shift to the right side.
Mitral regurgitation, also called mitral regurgitation, occurs when there is a defect in the mitral valve, which is a structure in the heart that separates the left atrium from the left ventricle. When this happens, the mitral valve does not close fully, causing a small volume of blood to return to the lungs instead of leaving the heart to irrigate the body.
Myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle, which usually arises as a complication of an infection, but which can also develop after the use of some antibiotics and even drug consumption. Myocarditis causes symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or dizziness.
Cardiac ischemia, also known as myocardial ischemia or myocardial ischemia, is characterized by a decrease in the flow of blood through the coronary arteries, which are the vessels that carry blood to the heart. It is usually caused by the presence of fatty plaques inside, which, when not properly treated, can rupture and clog the vessel, causing pain and increasing the chances of a heart attack.
Blood pressure is the value that represents the force that blood exerts against blood vessels as it is pumped by the heart and circulated throughout the body. The pressure considered normal is that which is close to 120x80 mmHg and, therefore, whenever it is above this value, the person is considered to be hypertensive (high blood pressure) and, when it is below, the person has hypotension (Low pressure).
To reduce the risk of heart disease, it is recommended to follow some simple tips such as quitting smoking, eating properly and controlling diseases such as hypertension and diabetes because this way there is less fat accumulated in the body and inside the arteries and a lower risk of heart disease.
The functioning of the heart can be evaluated through several tests that must be indicated by the cardiologist or general practitioner according to the person's clinical history. Some tests, such as electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, can be performed routinely with the aim of performing a cardiovascular check-up, while other tests, such as myocardial scintigraphy, stress test, echocardiogram, M.
Left bundle branch block is characterized by a delay or block in the conduction of electrical impulses in the intraventricular region of the left side of the heart, leading to a prolongation of the QRS interval on the electrocardiogram, which may be partial or total.
Stent angioplasty is a medical procedure performed with the aim of restoring blood flow through the introduction of a metal mesh inside the obstructed vessel. There are two types of stent: Drug stent, in which there is a progressive release of drugs into the bloodstream, reducing the accumulation of new fat plaques, for example, in addition to being less aggressive and there is less risk of clot formation;
The postoperative period of cardiac surgery consists of rest, preferably in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in the first 48 hours after the procedure. This is because in the ICU there is all the equipment that can be used to monitor the patient in this initial phase, in which there are greater chances of electrolyte disturbances, such as sodium and potassium, arrhythmia or cardiac arrest, which is an emergency situation in which the heart stops beating or starts beating slowly, w
Valvulopathy, also called cardiac valvulopathy, is a set of diseases that affect the heart valves, mainly the mitral valve, which separates the left atrium from the left ventricle, or the aortic valve, and occurs due to hardening of the heart valves.
Palpitations arise when you can feel your heart beating for a few seconds or minutes and are usually not related to he alth problems, being caused by excessive stress, use of medication or exercise physical. However, if heart palpitations occur frequently, present with an irregular rhythm or are associated with other symptoms such as dizziness or tightness in the chest, it is recommended to consult a cardiologist to evaluate the existence of a heart problem, such as arrhyth
Vasovagal syncope, also known as vasovagal syndrome, reflex syncope, or neuromediated syncope, is a sudden, transient loss of consciousness caused by a brief reduction in blood flow to the brain. This is the most common cause of syncope, also called common fainting, and happens when there is a decrease in blood pressure and heart rate due to inappropriate stimulation of the vagus nerve, a nerve that runs from the brain to the stomach, and is very important for regulating va
Phlebitis, or thrombophlebitis, is the partial closure and inflammation of a vein due to the presence of a blood clot, which interferes with blood flow and leads to the appearance of some symptoms, such as swelling, redness and pain in the affected site.
Aortic ectasia is characterized by a dilation of the aorta artery, which is the artery through which the heart pumps blood throughout the body. This condition is usually asymptomatic, being diagnosed, in most cases, by accident. Aortic ectasia can be abdominal or thoracic, depending on its location, and can progress to an aortic aneurysm when it exceeds 50% of its initial diameter.
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a rare complication of poorly controlled diabetes, which causes changes in the normal functioning of the heart muscle and can, over time, lead to heart failure. See the signs of heart failure. Generally, this type of cardiomyopathy is not related to other factors such as high blood pressure or coronary heart disease and, therefore, is attributed to changes caused by diabetes.
The vast majority of heart murmurs are not serious, and occur without any type of disease, being called physiological or innocent, arising due to the natural turbulence of the blood as it passes through the heart. This type of murmur is very common in babies and children, and it happens because the structures of the heart are still developing and can be disproportionate, therefore, most disappear over the years, with growth.
Pericarditis is inflammation of the membrane that covers the heart, also known as the pericardium, which causes very intense pain in the chest, similar to a heart attack. Common causes of pericarditis include infections such as pneumonia and tuberculosis, rheumatologic diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis, or radiation therapy to the chest.
Heart transplantation consists of replacing the heart with another, coming from an individual who is brain dead, who does not have heart disease and alterations and is compatible with that of the patient who has a potentially fatal heart problem.
Aortic calcification is a change that occurs due to the accumulation of calcium inside the aorta artery, which reduces the elasticity of the artery and makes it difficult for blood to pass through, causing symptoms such as chest pain and easy tiredness, in addition to increase the risk of serious complications such as heart attack or stroke.
Mitral stenosis corresponds to thickening and calcification of the mitral valve, resulting in a narrowing of the opening that allows the passage of blood from the atrium to the ventricle. The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve, is a heart structure that separates the left atrium from the left ventricle.
Foods that are good for the heart and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as high blood pressure, stroke or heart attack are those rich in antioxidant substances, fiber and monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, such as olive oil, garlic, oatmeal, tomato and sardines, for example.
Hypertensive crisis, also called hypertension crisis, is a situation characterized by a rapid increase in blood pressure, usually around 180/110 mmHg and which, if left untreated, can lead to serious complications. This situation can happen in people who have never had blood pressure problems, however it is more common in people who have high blood pressure and do not follow the treatment recommended by the doctor.
Valvuloplasty is surgery performed to correct a defect in a heart valve so that blood circulation occurs correctly. This surgery may only involve repairing the damaged valve or replacing it with one made of metal, from an animal such as a pig or cow, or from a deceased human donor.
Endocarditis is inflammation of the tissue that lines the inside of the heart, especially the heart valves. It is usually caused by an infection elsewhere in the body that spreads through the blood to the heart and is therefore also known as infective endocarditis.
Bacterial endocarditis is an infection that affects the internal structures of the heart, especially the heart valves, due to the presence of bacteria that arrive through the bloodstream. It is a serious disease, with a high chance of mortality and that can be associated with several complications, such as stroke, for example.
Mitral valve prolapse is an alteration present in the mitral valve, which is a heart valve formed by two leaflets, which when closing, separates the left atrium from the left ventricle of the heart. Mitral valve prolapse is characterized by a failure to close the mitral leaflets, where one or both leaflets may have an abnormal displacement during left ventricular contraction.
The cardiovascular system is made up of the heart, blood and blood vessels, which are responsible for supplying the needs of the body's tissues, transporting nutrients such as oxygen, eliminating metabolism products, transporting hormones from one part of the body to another, and maintaining body fluids so that the cells function properly.
One of the main tips to manage high blood pressure is to reduce s alt intake, as s alt is rich in sodium, a mineral that, although essential for life, when consumed in excess causes blood pressure to increase, increasing the risk of serious cardiovascular problems, such as stroke or heart attack.