The preventive exam, also known as Pap smear, is a gynecological exam indicated for sexually active women and which aims to evaluate the cervix, checking for signs that indicate infection by HPV, which is the virus responsible for cervical cancer, or other microorganisms that can be sexually transmitted.
Diagnostic Tests 2023, June
Fasting blood glucose, or fasting glucose, is a blood test that measures the rate of glucose in the bloodstream and needs to be done after fasting for 8 to 12 hours, or as directed by the doctor. doctor, without consuming any food or drink except water.
A FNA, also known as Fine Needle Aspiration, is an exam that can be indicated with the aim of evaluating whether a nodule present in the thyroid is benign or malignant, helping the doctor to start the most appropriate treatment. FNA is usually performed during or after thyroid ultrasound, in which the gland is observed as a whole and changes can be identified.
The cortisol test is usually ordered to check for problems with the adrenal glands or the pituitary gland, as cortisol is a hormone produced and regulated by these glands. Thus, when there is a change in normal cortisol values, it is normal for there to be a change in one of the glands.
The stool test may be requested by the doctor to assess digestive functions, amount of fat in the stool or parasite eggs, being useful to know how the person is doing. It may be recommended that two to three collections be made on different days, and each sample should be stored in a specific container and kept in the refrigerator.
Cordocentesis, or fetal blood sample, is a prenatal diagnostic test, performed from 18 to 20 weeks of gestation, and consists of taking a sample of the baby's blood from the umbilical cord, to detect any chromosomal deficiency in the baby, such as Down Syndrome, or diseases such as toxoplasmosis, rubella, fetal anemia or cytomegalovirus, for example.
Myoglobin is a protein found in striated muscles, including the heart muscle, being responsible for binding to oxygen and storing it until needed, such as during physical activity, for example. However, in the presence of any situation that compromises the muscles, myoglobin and other proteins can be released into the circulation.
Some tests are recommended to be done before marriage, by the couple, in order to assess their he alth conditions, preparing them for the formation of a family and their future children. Genetic counseling may be recommended when the woman is over 35 years of age, if there is a family history of intellectual disabilities or if the marriage is between cousins, and aims to determine whether there is any potential risk for the pregnancy.
The increase and decrease in the number of segmented neutrophils in the blood can indicate what is happening in the body. In the case of an infection, for example, the number of targets may be increased as the immune system is working to fight the infection.
The presence of red blood cells in the urine is known as hematuria and is usually associated with kidney problems, however it can also be a consequence of very intense physical activity, although this is rare, or due to the menstrual period, for example.
The presence of fat in the urine is not considered normal, and should be investigated through other tests to evaluate kidney function, mainly, and then, treatment should be started if necessary. The fat in the urine can be perceived through the cloudy or oily appearance of the urine, in addition to being able to observe more specific characteristics under the microscope, being indicated in the urinalysis report.
Glomerular filtration rate, or simply GFR, is a laboratory measurement that allows the general practitioner and nephrologist to assess the functioning of the person's kidneys, and this measure is important for the diagnosis and verification of the stage of kidney disease chronic disease (CKD), which makes the GFR also essential for establishing the best treatment, if necessary.
The measurement of total blood proteins reflects a person's nutritional status and can be used in the diagnosis of kidney, liver and other disorders. If total protein levels are altered, further tests should be done to identify which specific protein is altered so that the correct diagnosis can be made.
The presence of epithelial cells in the urine is considered normal and generally has no clinical relevance, as it indicates that there was natural desquamation of the urinary tract, causing these cells to be eliminated in the urine. Although it is considered a normal finding, it is important to indicate the number of epithelial cells found in the examination and whether any changes were observed in the nucleus or in its shape, as they may indicate more serious situations.
Platelets are small fragments of a cell produced by the bone marrow, the megakaryocyte, and act mainly in the blood clotting process, being essential to prevent major bleeding. The process of megakaryocyte production by the bone marrow and fragmentation into platelets lasts about 10 days and is regulated by the hormone thrombopoietin, which is produced by the liver and kidneys.
The presence of bilirubin in the urine is usually indicative of liver problems and can be noticed due to the dark yellow to orange color of the pee, being confirmed by urinalysis. Bilirubin is a product of the degradation of hemoglobin, becomes soluble in the liver, receiving the name of direct bilirubin, is transported to the bile ducts and intestine, where it undergoes a degradation process, and is eliminated in the feces in the in the form of stercobilinogen and in the u
Retinal mapping, also known as fundus examination or funduscopy, is an examination in which the ophthalmologist can observe the eye gel (vitreous humor), the optic nerve, blood vessels and the tissue of the eye responsible for capturing the images, being able to detect changes and allow the indication of treatment.
Protein electrophoresis is a blood test requested by the doctor with the aim of investigating diseases that may lead to changes in the amount of circulating proteins in the blood, being considered one of the main tests requested for the investigation and diagnosis of multiple myeloma.
Lung scintigraphy is a diagnostic test that evaluates the presence of changes in the air passage or blood circulation to the lungs, being done in 2 steps, called inhalation, also known as ventilation, or perfusion. To perform the exam, it is necessary to use a drug with radioactive capabilities, such as Technetium 99m or Gallium 67, and a device to capture the formed images.
Vulvoscopy is a gynecological exam that aims to analyze in more detail the intimate region of the woman, mainly Monte de Venus, labia majora, interlabial sulci, labia minora, clitoris, vestibule and the perineal region, identifying changes that cannot be seen with the naked eye.
The cytology exam aims to evaluate the cells of a certain region of the body or fluid, being able to identify the presence of signs of inflammation, infection, bleeding or cancer by observing the sample under a microscope. This test is usually indicated to analyze the contents of cysts, nodules, unusual fluids that accumulate in body cavities or abnormal secretions such as sputum.
Hydrocolontherapy, also called colontherapy, is a procedure to cleanse the large intestine in which filtered and purified warm water is inserted through the anus, allowing the elimination of accumulated feces and toxins from the intestine. However, this method does not present recent scientific evidence, is associated with some complications, such as perforation of the intestine or rectum, and, therefore, is not recommended by the Brazilian Society of Coloproctology.
Uterine biopsy is a diagnostic test used to identify possible changes in the tissue lining the uterus that may indicate abnormal growth of the endometrium, infections of the uterus and even cancer, being requested when the gynecologist notices changes in gynecological exams performed by the woman.
Procalcitonin (PCT) is a biomarker of inflammation, being mainly used to aid the diagnosis of bacterial infections, the risk of complications and the response to antibiotic treatment. Procalcitonin is a peptide precursor of calcitonin, which is a hormone produced by the thyroid with the aim of regulating calcium levels in the body.
Amorphous urates are a type of crystal that can be identified in the urine test and that can arise due to the cooling of the sample or due to the acidic pH of the urine, and it is often possible to observe the presence of other crystals in the exam.
The positive nitrite result indicates that bacteria capable of converting nitrate into nitrite were identified in the urine, indicating a urinary tract infection, which should be treated with antibiotics if there are associated symptoms, such as Ciprofloxacin.
Mammography is an imaging test performed to visualize the inner region of the breasts, that is, the breast tissue, with the main objective of identifying changes that may indicate the development of breast cancer. This mammogram is usually recommended for women over 40 years of age, however women over 35 who have a family history of breast cancer should also have a mammogram.
PSA, known as Prostate Specific Antigen, is an enzyme produced by prostate cells whose increased concentration can indicate changes in the prostate, such as prostatitis, benign prostatic hypertrophy or prostate cancer, for example. Normally the PSA blood test is indicated at least once a year in all men from 45 years of age, but it can be used whenever there is a suspicion of any urinary or prostate alteration.
A colonoscopy is a test that allows you to look inside the walls of the large intestine and, in some cases, the end of the small intestine. Colonoscopy is especially indicated to identify the presence of polyps, intestinal cancer or other types of bowel changes such as colitis, varicose veins or diverticular disease.
X-ray is a type of diagnostic exam that uses electromagnetic waves, creating images of the inside of the body, being generally indicated to evaluate if there is any change in the bones, such as osteoporosis or fractures, but it can also be indicated for check for enlarged heart or lung changes, such as pneumonia, for example.
Angiotomography, or CT angiography, is a diagnostic test that combines two techniques, angiography and computed tomography, using modern 3D equipment, which allow the visualization and detection of changes in veins and arteries, such as aneurysm, obstruction or narrowing of blood vessels.
The growth hormone, also called GH or somatotropin, is an important hormone produced by the pituitary gland that acts on the growth of children and adolescents and also participates in the body's metabolism processes. This test is performed with the dosage in blood samples collected in the laboratory and is usually requested by the endocrinologist when there is suspicion of lack of GH production, especially in children who have a growth below the expected, or excess of prod
Cholangiography is an X-ray exam used to evaluate the bile ducts, and which allows the visualization of the bile path from the liver to the duodenum. Often this type of test is done during surgery to remove a gallbladder stone, for example, but it can also be indicated by the doctor to help diagnose other problems related to the bile ducts, such as:
Exams with contrast, also called contrasted, are imaging tests performed using substances that help to obtain a better definition of the images formed, which facilitates the physician's evaluation. These substances are called "contrast media"
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), also known as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), is an imaging test capable of showing, with great definition, the internal structures of the organs, being important to diagnose various he alth problems, such as aneurysms, tumors, joint changes, or other injuries to internal organs.
The PET scan, also called PET-CT or positron emission computed tomography, is an imaging test widely used to diagnose cancer early, check the tumor development and if there is metastasis. This exam is capable of showing the functioning of the organism, through the administration of a radioactive substance, called a tracer, which when absorbed, emits radiation that is captured by the equipment and transformed into an image.
Gram stain, or simply Gram, is a quick and simple technique that aims to differentiate bacteria according to the characteristics of their cell wall after exposure to different dyes and solutions. Thus, through Gram staining, it is possible to verify, in addition to the shape of the bacteria, the color they acquire, which is an important result for defining other strategies for identifying the bacterial species and for the doctor to indicate a treatment preventive according
A cystoscopy, or urethrocystoscopy, is a medical procedure performed to identify any changes in the urethra and bladder. This exam is simple and quick, and can be performed in the doctor's office under local anesthesia. Cystoscopy may be recommended by the urologist or gynecologist in order to investigate the cause of blood in the urine, urinary incontinence or infections, for example, in addition to checking for any changes in the bladder.
Calprotectin is a protein released by neutrophils, which are a type of white blood cells that travel to the gastrointestinal tract when there is inflammation, releasing this protein, which is found in high concentrations in feces. The calprotectin test, also known as fecal calprotectin, is usually ordered with the aim of diagnosing inflammatory bowel diseases and/or evaluating whether the treatment for these diseases is being effective.
The fetal echocardiogram, also called fetal echocardiography, is an imaging test that is usually requested prenatally and which aims to verify the development, size and functioning of the fetal heart. In this way, it is possible to identify congenital alterations, such as alteration in the communication between veins and arteries and alteration in the growth of one side of the heart, for example.