Diagnostic Tests 2022, December

Antithyroid peroxidase: what é and why can it be high

Antithyroid peroxidase: what é and why can it be high

Anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) is an antibody produced by the immune system that attacks the thyroid gland, resulting in a change in the levels of hormones produced by the thyroid. Anti-TPO values ​​vary from laboratory to laboratory, with increased values ​​usually indicative of autoimmune diseases.

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6 tests that evaluate the thyroid (and when to do it)

6 tests that evaluate the thyroid (and when to do it)

To identify diseases that affect the thyroid, the doctor may request several tests to evaluate the size of the glands, the presence of tumors and thyroid functioning. Thus, the doctor can recommend the dosage of hormones that are directly linked to the functioning of the thyroid, such as TSH, free T4 and T3, as well as imaging tests to check for the presence of nodules, such as thyroid ultrasound, for example.

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T3 and T4: what they are, what they are for and when the exam é indicated

T3 and T4: what they are, what they are for and when the exam é indicated

T3 and T4 are hormones produced by the thyroid gland, under stimulation of the TSH hormone, which is produced by the pituitary gland, and which participate in several processes in the body, mainly related to metabolism and energy supply for the proper functioning of the body.

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Fetal sexing: what é, like é done and results

Fetal sexing: what é, like é done and results

Fetal sexing is an exam that aims to identify the sex of the baby from the 8th week of pregnancy through the analysis of maternal blood, in which the search for fragments of the Y chromosome, which is present in the male. This exam can be performed from the 8th week of pregnancy, however the more weeks you have of pregnancy, the greater the certainty of the result.

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Diabetes tests: 4 exams that confirm the diagnosisóstic

Diabetes tests: 4 exams that confirm the diagnosisóstic

Confirmation of diabetes is made by checking the results of several laboratory tests that assess the amount of glucose circulating in the blood: fasting blood glucose test, capillary blood glucose test, glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and the glycated hemoglobin test.

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Leucócites: what is the activity and why are it high or low?

Leucócites: what is the activity and why are it high or low?

Leukocytes, also known as white blood cells, are the cells responsible for defending the body against infections, diseases, allergies and colds, being part of each person's immunity. These cells are transported in the blood to be used whenever a virus, bacteria, or any other foreign organism enters the human body, eliminating them and preventing them from causing he alth problems.

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TSH exam: what is it for and why is itá high or low

TSH exam: what is it for and why is itá high or low

The TSH test is used to evaluate thyroid function and is usually requested by the general practitioner or endocrinologist, to assess whether this gland is working properly, and in case of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or in the follow-up in case of differentiated cancer thyroid, such as follicular or papillary, for example.

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Creatinine: what é, reference values ​​and when the exam é indicated

Creatinine: what é, reference values ​​and when the exam é indicated

Creatinine is a substance present in the blood that is produced by the muscles and eliminated by the kidneys. Thus, the analysis of creatinine levels in the blood can be useful to investigate the presence of any alteration in the kidneys, since in this situation the concentration of this protein would be higher in the blood.

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Proteíin C-reactive (PCR): what é and why can it be high

Proteíin C-reactive (PCR): what é and why can it be high

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein produced by the liver that is usually increased when there is some kind of inflammatory or infectious process happening in the body, being one of the first indicators to be altered in the blood test in these situations.

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Urobilinog&circle in urine: what it could be and what to do

Urobilinog&circle in urine: what it could be and what to do

Urobilinogen is a product of the degradation of bilirubin by bacteria present in the intestine, which is carried into the blood and excreted by the kidney. However, when there is a large amount of bilirubin produced, there is an increase in the concentration of urobilinogen in the intestine and, consequently, in the urine.

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Leucóhigh cytes in urine: what it could be and what to do

Leucóhigh cytes in urine: what it could be and what to do

The presence of leukocytes in the urine is normal when the presence of up to 5 leukocytes per analyzed field or 10000 leukocytes per mL of urine is verified. However, when a higher amount is identified, it can be indicative of an infection in the urinary or genital system, in addition to lupus, kidney problems or tumors, for example.

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Linfócites: what they are and why they may be altered

Linfócites: what they are and why they may be altered

Lymphocytes are a type of defense cell in the body, also known as white blood cells, which are produced in greater quantity when there is an infection, being therefore a good indicator of the patient's he alth status. There are two types of lymphocytes, B cells and T cells, which play different roles in the immune system.

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Urea test: what is it for and why it can be high

Urea test: what is it for and why it can be high

The urea test is one of the blood tests ordered by the doctor that aims to check the amount of urea in the blood to know if the kidneys and liver are working properly. Urea is a substance produced by the liver as a result of the metabolism of proteins from food.

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Urinalysis (EAS): what it is for, preparation and results

Urinalysis (EAS): what it is for, preparation and results

The urinalysis, also known as type 1 urine test or EAS test (Abnormal Sediment Elements), is a test usually requested by doctors to identify changes in the urinary and renal system and should be done through the analysis of the first urine of the day, since it is more concentrated.

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Colposcopy: what é, what it is for and how é done

Colposcopy: what é, what it is for and how é done

Colposcopy is a gynecological examination in which the vulva, vagina and cervix are observed in a very detailed way, looking for signs that may indicate inflammation or diseases such as HPV and cancer. Generally, the gynecologist performs this exam when, during the gynecological exam, lesions are seen in the cervix or vagina or when the pap smear showed some alteration.

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Testosterone: signs that you areá low and how to increase

Testosterone: signs that you areá low and how to increase

Testosterone is the main male hormone, being responsible for characteristics considered masculine such as beard growth, deepening of the voice or increase in muscle mass. In addition, testosterone also stimulates sperm production, being directly related to male fertility.

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Reference Values&CBC

Reference Values&CBC

The reference values ​​of the complete blood count generally vary according to the sex and age of the patient, however, it is also possible to observe differences in the values ​​depending on the laboratory where the collection was performed.

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Alkaline Phosphatase: what é and why está high or low

Alkaline Phosphatase: what é and why está high or low

Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme that is present in various tissues of the body, being in greater quantity in the cells of the bile ducts, which are the channels that carry bile from the liver to the intestine, and in the bones, being produced by the cells involved in its formation and maintenance.

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Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT): what é and what does high TGP mean

Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT): what é and what does high TGP mean

Alanine Aminotransferase Test, also known as alt=""Image" or TGP, is a blood test that helps identify liver injury and disease due to the elevated presence of the enzyme alanine aminotransferase, also called of glutamic pyruvic transaminase in the blood, which is normally found between 7 and 56 U/L of blood .

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HOMA-BETA and HOMA-IR: what they are for and reference valuesê

HOMA-BETA and HOMA-IR: what they are for and reference valuesê

The Homa Index is a measure that appears in the result of the blood test that serves to evaluate insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and pancreas activity (HOMA-BETA) and thus assist in the diagnosis of diabetes. The word Homa means Homeostasis Assessment Model and, generally, when the results are above the reference values, it means that there is a greater chance of developing cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes, for example.

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8 main routine gynecological examsógical exams

8 main routine gynecological examsógical exams

The gynecological exams requested by the gynecologist annually aim to guarantee the well-being and he alth of the woman and to diagnose or treat some diseases such as endometriosis, HPV, abnormal vaginal discharge or bleeding outside the menstrual period.

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FSH: what é, what it is for and why it is á high or low

FSH: what é, what it is for and why it is á high or low

FSH, known as follicle-stimulating hormone, is produced by the pituitary gland and has the function of regulating sperm production and egg maturation during childbearing age. Thus, FSH is a hormone linked to fertility and its concentration in the blood helps to identify whether the testes and ovaries are working properly.

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Barm enema: what é, what it is for and how é done

Barm enema: what é, what it is for and how é done

A barium enema is a diagnostic test that uses X-rays and contrast agents, usually barium sulfate, to study the shape and function of the large intestine and rectum and thus detect possible intestinal problems such as diverticulitis or polyps, for example.

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Polysomnography: indicações and as é done

Polysomnography: indicações and as é done

Polysomnography is an exam that serves to analyze the quality of sleep and diagnose sleep-related diseases, and can be indicated for people of any age. During the polysomnography exam, the patient sleeps with electrodes attached to the body that allow the simultaneous recording of various parameters such as brain activity, eye movement, muscle activity and breathing pattern.

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Glycêmica curve: what é, what it is for and reference valuesê

Glycêmica curve: what é, what it is for and reference valuesê

The glycemic curve test, also called the oral glucose tolerance test, or OGTT, is a test that can be ordered by the doctor with the aim of helping in the diagnosis of diabetes, pre-diabetes, insulin resistance or other changes related to pancreatic cells.

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How to understand the TGO-AST exam: Aspartate Aminotransferase

How to understand the TGO-AST exam: Aspartate Aminotransferase

The aspartate aminotransferase or oxalacetic transaminase (AST or TGO) test is a blood test ordered to investigate lesions that compromise the normal functioning of the liver, such as hepatitis or cirrhosis, for example. Oxalacetic transaminase or aspartate aminotransferase is an enzyme present in the liver that is normally elevated when liver damage is more chronic, as it is located more internally in the liver cell.

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Biópsia of the liver: what is it for, like é made and recoverção

Biópsia of the liver: what is it for, like é made and recoverção

A liver biopsy is a medical examination in which a small piece of the liver is removed, to be analyzed under a microscope by the pathologist, and thus, diagnose or evaluate diseases that are harming this organ, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, systemic diseases that affect the liver, or even cancer.

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TGO and TGP: what they are, what they are for and normal values

TGO and TGP: what they are, what they are for and normal values

TGO and TGP, also known as transaminases, are enzymes that are normally measured in order to assess liver he alth. TGO, known as oxalacetic transaminase or AST (aspartate aminotransferase) is produced in various tissues, such as the heart, muscles and liver, and is located inside liver cells.

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Immunoglobulin E (IgE): what é and why can it be high

Immunoglobulin E (IgE): what é and why can it be high

Immunoglobulin E, or IgE, is a protein present in low concentrations in the blood and that is normally found on the surface of some blood cells, mainly basophils and mast cells, for example. Because it is present on the surface of basophils and mast cells, which are cells that normally appear in higher concentrations in the blood during allergic reactions, IgE is usually related to allergies, however, its concentration can also be increased in the blood due to to diseases c

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DíD-number: what é, what it's for and why it's á increased

DíD-number: what é, what it's for and why it's á increased

D-dimer is a biological marker that is present in the blood when there is degradation of fibrin, a protein that is involved in clot formation. Thus, when there are changes in the clotting process, it is expected that there will be a greater amount of circulating D-dimer.

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ASLO exam: what é, what it is for and how é done

ASLO exam: what é, what it is for and how é done

The ASLO test, also called ASO, AEO or anti-streptolysin O, aims to identify the presence of a toxin released by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes, streptolysin O, which is normally associated with cases of pharyngitis or rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis, in the most severe cases.

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Echocardiogram: what é, what it is for and how é done

Echocardiogram: what é, what it is for and how é done

The echocardiogram is a simple exam that serves to evaluate, in real time, some characteristics of the heart, such as size, shape of the valves, muscle thickness and the heart's ability to function, in addition to blood flow. This exam also allows you to see the state of the great vessels of the heart, pulmonary artery and aorta at the time the exam is being performed.

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Full body scintigraphy: what é, when é indicated and as é done

Full body scintigraphy: what é, when é indicated and as é done

Whole-body scintigraphy or whole-body scan (PCI) is an imaging test ordered by a physician to investigate tumor location, disease progression, and metastases. For this, radioactive substances are used, called radiopharmaceuticals, such as iodine-131, octreotide or gallium-67, depending on the purpose of the scintigraphy, which are administered and absorbed by the organs, emitting radiation that is detected by the equipment.

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Thyroid self-exam can detect Nódulos: learn how

Thyroid self-exam can detect Nódulos: learn how

The thyroid self-exam is very easy and quick to perform and can indicate the presence of changes in this gland, such as cysts or nodules, for example. Thus, thyroid self-examination should be performed especially by those who suffer from thyroid-related diseases or who have symptoms of changes such as pain, difficulty swallowing, swollen neck sensation.

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T4 free and total: what são and what they are for and values

T4 free and total: what são and what they are for and values

T4 is a hormone produced by the thyroid that is responsible for supporting metabolism, providing the energy necessary for the correct functioning of the body. T4 is almost totally conjugated to proteins so that it can be transported in the bloodstream to various organs and can perform its function.

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Thyroglobulin: because it can be high or low

Thyroglobulin: because it can be high or low

Thyroglobulin is a tumor marker widely used to assess the development of thyroid cancer, especially during its treatment, helping the physician to adapt the treatment method and/or doses, according to the results. Although not all types of thyroid cancer produce thyroglobulin, the most common types do, so levels of this marker are usually increased in the blood in the presence of cancer.

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Exam T3: what is it for and how to understand the results

Exam T3: what is it for and how to understand the results

The T3 exam is requested by the doctor after abnormal TSH or T4 hormone results or when the person has signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as nervousness, weight loss, irritability and nausea, for example. The TSH hormone is responsible for stimulating the production of T4, mainly, which is metabolized in the liver in order to give rise to its most active form, T3.

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8 blood tests that detect câncer

8 blood tests that detect câncer

To identify cancer, the doctor may request the measurement of tumor markers, which are substances produced by the cells or by the tumor itself, such as AFP and PSA, which are elevated in the blood in the presence of certain cancer types. Know the signs and symptoms that may indicate cancer.

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Digestive endoscopy: what é, what is it for and how do I prepare it

Digestive endoscopy: what é, what is it for and how do I prepare it

Endoscopy is an exam performed by the gastroenterologist to evaluate the esophagus, stomach and duodenum, which is the initial portion of the intestine, indicated to investigate the cause of symptoms such as stomach pain, heartburn, burning, reflux, difficulty for swallowing or gastrointestinal bleeding, for example.

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Spermogram: what é, like é made and what is it for

Spermogram: what é, like é made and what is it for

The sperm analysis aims to evaluate the quantity and quality of the man's sperm, being mainly requested to investigate the cause of the couple's infertility, for example. In addition, sperm analysis is also usually ordered after vasectomy surgery and to assess the functioning of the testicles.

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