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Bullying is an English term that refers to the intentional and repeated harassment or intimidation of a person that can happen at school or work through verbal actions, written messages and/or physical and psychological abuse. This situation is more common in childhood and adolescence, resulting in poor school performance and serious psychological problems.
Although it is more frequent in schools and at work, bullying can also happen in other settings, such as in sports clubs and in the family, for example, leading to the development of symptoms such as low self-esteem, isolation and behaviors suicidal in some cases. Therefore, it is important that from the moment a victim of bullying becomes known, actions are taken with the aim of stopping these abusive behaviors and, thus, preventing serious psychological consequences for the person.
There are several types of bullying that can lead a person to develop psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression and, therefore, it is important that the victim of bullying receives psychological support to alleviate the symptoms and consequences produced by intimidation and harassment suffered constants.
Types of bullying
Bullying can be practiced in different ways, whether by name calling, aggression or isolation, and thus can be classified into a few main types:
- Verbal bullying, which is the most common type of bullying practiced in schools and which starts with a mean nickname, usually related to some characteristic of the person. In addition to nicknames, this type of bullying is characterized by constant cursing and humiliation, which can make that child who has suffered verbal bullying grow up not believing in their skills and afraid to relate to other people;
- Physical bullying, which is characterized by physical violence, that is, in this type of bullying the victim is kicked, punched, kicked or has the passage blocked by the simple fact of using glasses, braces or being a little overweight, for example. This type of bullying is common, but often goes unnoticed because it can be interpreted as a friend's joke, for example;
- Psychological bullying, in which the victim is constantly bullied or blackmailed, in addition to being frequently the victim of slander and rumors, as well as persecution regarding sexual orientation, religion or weight. Psychological bullying can lead to depression and anxiety;
- Virtual bullying, also known as cyberbullying, is characterized by verbal and psychological attacks through social networks. In this type of bullying, the internet is the greatest ally, being the main tool for disseminating photos, videos or mean comments about the person;
- Social bullying, in which the person is constantly isolated from activities and daily contact with colleagues at work or at school.
It is difficult for only one type of bullying to be practiced, usually in schools physical, psychological, verbal and social bullying can be perceived. Despite being something relatively common in schools, bullying can happen at any age and in any environment, because any comment made about another person that can interfere in your life can be considered bullying.
Symptoms of bullying
Bullying can cause physical and emotional symptoms that can lead to the development of mental disorders such as generalized anxiety or depression that can lead the person to try against their own life. The main symptoms of bullying are:
- Low self-esteem;
- Anxiety and/or depression;
- Sleep disturbances such as insomnia or night terrors;
- Refusal to go to work or school;
- No eye contact;
- Aggressive behavior;
- Sweaty hands;
- Nausea and vomiting;
- Abdominal pain.
It is important that, in the case of young children and adolescents, contact is made with teachers and friends, who can provide information about the child's behavior and, thus, identify behaviors that are different from those at home.
In the case of adults, it is more difficult, since they are not very social people, which can generate a false perception of an introverted personality. Therefore, in case you identify any symptoms or witness a bullying action, you should try to support the victim.
Main consequences of bullying
The child or adolescent who suffers from bullying cries constantly out of anger and sadness, and in their day-to-day they manifest feelings of fear, insecurity and anguish, devaluing their qualities.
Bullying can result in long-term problems, such as difficulty relating to people, causing stress at work, poor ability to maintain a romantic relationship, difficulty making decisions, tendency to depression, low self-esteem esteem and low profitability at work due to lack of confidence.