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Tyramine is present in foods such as meat, chicken, fish, cheese and fruit, and is found in greater amounts in fermented and aged foods.
The main foods rich in tyramine are:
- Drinks: beer, red wine, sherry and vermouth;
- Breads: made with yeast extracts or aged cheeses and meats, and homemade or yeast-rich breads;
- Aged and processed cheeses: cheddar, blue cheese, cheese spreads, Swiss, gouda, gorgonzola, Parmesan, Romano, feta and brie;
- Fruits: banana peel, dried fruit and overripe fruit;
- Vegetables: green beans, fava beans, fermented cabbage, lentils, sauerkraut;
- Meat: aged meats, dried or cured meat, dried fish, cured or in pickled sauce, liver, meat extracts, salami, bacon, pepperoni, ham, smoked foods;
- Others: brewer's yeast, yeast broths, industrialized sauces, cheese crackers, yeast pastes, soy sauce, yeast extracts.
Tyramine is a derivative of the amino acid tyrosine, and participates in the production of catecholamines, neurotransmitters that act to control blood pressure. High levels of tyrosine in the body cause blood pressure to rise, which is especially dangerous for people who have hypertension.
Foods with moderate amounts of tyramide
Foods that have moderate amounts of tyramide are:
- Drinks: broths, distilled liqueur, light red wine, white wine and port wine;
- Commercial breads with no yeast or low yeast content;
- Yogurt and unpasteurized dairy products;
- Fruits: avocado, raspberry, red plum;
- Vegetables: Chinese green beans, spinach, peanuts;
- Meat: fish roe and meat pates.
In addition to these, foods such as coffee, teas, colas and chocolates also have moderate levels of tyramide.
Cautions and contraindications
Foods rich in tyramide should not be consumed in excess by people using MAO inhibitor medications, also known as MAOIs or mono-amino oxidase inhibitors, as migraine or increased blood pressure may occur.
These drugs are mainly used to treat problems such as depression and high blood pressure.