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Diagnostic Tests 2023

As é phlebotomy performed and when é indicated

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As é phlebotomy performed and when é indicated
As é phlebotomy performed and when é indicated
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Phlebotomy is the placement of a catheter in a blood vessel, with the aim of administering medication to patients with difficult venous access or to monitor central venous pressure, or even perform bleeding, which is an ancient medical practice performed with the objective of decreasing iron stores or the number of red blood cells, as in cases of hemochromatosis or polycythemia vera.

Currently, the term phlebotomy is more associated with the collection of blood for laboratory tests and for donation. Phlebotomy is a delicate procedure that must be performed by a professional duly trained for this function, such as a nurse, as any error in the collection can alter the results of the exams.

When is indicated

Phlebotomy is most commonly used for diagnostic purposes, and the collected blood is sent to the laboratory for analyzes to be carried out in order to assist in the diagnosis and follow-up of the patient. Phlebotomy corresponds to the first stage of diagnosis, and must be performed by a nurse, or other qualified professional, to avoid alterations in the results.

In addition to being essential for carrying out laboratory tests for the diagnosis and follow-up of the patient, phlebotomy can be performed as a therapy option, being then called bloodletting. Bleeding aims to solve problems related to the increased number of red blood cells, in the case of polycythemia vera, or large accumulation of iron in the blood, which is what happens in hemochromatosis. Understand what hemochromatosis is and how to identify the symptoms.

Phlebotomy is also an essential part of the blood donation process, which aims to collect about 450 mL of blood, which goes through a series of processes until it can be used by a person in need, helping in the your treatment.Learn how blood transfusions are performed.

How phlebotomy is performed

Plebotomy blood collection can be done in hospitals and laboratories and fasting depends on the type of test that was requested by the doctor. See fasting times for the most common blood tests.

The collection can be done with a syringe, in which a total amount of blood is withdrawn and then distributed in the tubes, or by vacuum, which is more common, in which several tubes of blood are collected following a predetermined order. established.

Then, the he althcare professional should follow the following steps:

  1. Gather all the necessary equipment for collection, such as the tube in which the blood will be stored, gloves, tourniquet, cotton or gauze, alcohol, needle or syringe.
  2. Check patient data and identify the tubes in which the collection will be performed;
  3. Place the person's arm under a clean sheet of paper or towel;
  4. Locate a good-sized vein that is visible, straight and clear. It is important that the vein is visible without applying the tourniquet;
  5. Place the tourniquet 4 to 5 fingers above the place where the collection will be made and re-examine the vein;
  6. Put on gloves and disinfect the place where the needle will be placed. Disinfection should be done with 70% alcohol, passing the cotton in a circular motion. After disinfection, do not touch the area or run your finger over the vein. If this happens, it is necessary to do a new disinfection;
  7. Insert the needle into the arm and collect the necessary blood into the vials.

Finally, the needle should be gently withdrawn and then light pressure should be applied to the collection site with clean gauze or cotton.

In the case of collection performed on babies, blood is usually withdrawn through a heel prick or, more rarely, in the earlobe.

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