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General Practice 2023

Streptococcus pyogenes: symptoms and treatment (of the main diseasesças)

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Streptococcus pyogenes: symptoms and treatment (of the main diseasesças)
Streptococcus pyogenes: symptoms and treatment (of the main diseasesças)
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The main diseases related to Streptococcus pyogenes are inflammation of the throat, such as tonsillitis and pharyngitis, which when not treated correctly can favor the spread of the bacteria to other parts of the body, which can lead to the appearance of of more serious diseases, such as Rheumatic Fever and Toxic Shock Syndrome, for example.

The symptoms of infection vary according to where the bacteria are present, with mainly cutaneous manifestations involving the throat, for example. Usually the treatment is done with the use of antibiotics and, depending on the situation, minor surgery may be necessary, as in the case of Streptococcus pyogenes tonsillitis.

Streptococcus pyogenes, or S. pyogenes, is a gram positive bacterium, which can be found naturally in people, mainly in the mouth, throat and respiratory system, without causing any signs or symptoms. However, due to its location, it can be easily transmitted from person to person through the sharing of cutlery, secretions or through sneezing and coughing, for example, making it easier to get sick. Learn more about Streptococcus.

1. Pharyngitis

Bacterial pharyngitis is inflammation of the throat caused by bacteria of the genus Streptococcus, mainly Streptococcus pyogenes. It is important that pharyngitis is identified and treated in order to prevent complications, such as rheumatic fever, for example.

Main symptoms: The main symptoms of bacterial pharyngitis are severe sore throat, painful lumps in the neck, difficulty swallowing, loss of appetite and high fever. Learn about other symptoms of bacterial pharyngitis.

Treatment: Treatment for bacterial pharyngitis is done with antibiotics for about 10 days, as directed by the doctor, in addition to medications that help reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms.

2. Tonsillitis

Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils, which are the lymph nodes in the back of the throat that are responsible for defending the body against infections, mainly caused by bacteria of the genus Streptococcus, usually Streptococcus pyogenes.

Main symptoms: S. pyogenes tonsillitis causes sore throat, difficulty swallowing, loss of appetite and fever, in addition to the presence of white dots in the throat, being indicative of inflammation by bacteria. Here's how to identify bacterial tonsillitis.

Treatment: It is recommended that bacterial tonsillitis be treated with antibiotics according to the doctor's recommendation, most of the times the use of Penicillin or derivatives is indicated.Also, one way to relieve the discomfort caused by tonsillitis is through gargling with s alt water, for example.

Surgery to remove the tonsils, called tonsillectomy, is only recommended by the doctor in case of recurrent inflammation, that is, when the person has several episodes of bacterial tonsillitis throughout the year.

3. Impetigo

Impetigo is a skin infection caused by bacteria that can be found naturally in the skin and respiratory tract, such as Streptococcus pyogenes, for example. This disease is highly contagious and is more common in children, so it is important that if the child shows any signs of impetigo, they stop going to school and avoid being in an environment with many people to avoid contamination of more people.

Main symptoms: Impetigo symptoms usually arise due to a decrease in the immune system, resulting in the proliferation of bacteria and the appearance of small, localized blisters, usually on the face, which can break and leave red marks on the skin, in addition to the formation of a crust in the lesion.

Treatment: Treatment for impetigo is done as directed by your doctor, and it is usually recommended to apply an antibiotic ointment to the wound site 3 to 4 times a day. It is important that the treatment is done according to the doctor's guidance to prevent the bacteria from reaching the blood circulation and reaching other organs, in addition to preventing the contamination of more people. Understand how treatment for impetigo is done.

4. Erysipelas

Erysipelas is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes that is more common in people over 50, overweight people and diabetics. Erysipelas is curable when treatment is started quickly according to the advice of the general practitioner or dermatologist.

Main symptoms: Erysipelas is characterized by the appearance of red sores on the face, arms or legs that are quite painful and, if left untreated, can cause accumulation of pus and death. tissue, in addition to favoring the entry of S.pyogenes and other bacteria in the body.

Treatment: To treat erysipelas it is important to follow the treatment recommended by the general practitioner or dermatologist, and the use of antibiotics such as Penicillin is usually indicated. See more about the treatment of Erysipelas.

5. Rheumatic Fever

Rheumatic fever is an autoimmune disease that can occur as a consequence of infection by Streptococcus pyogenes. This is because in this situation the antibodies produced against the bacteria can reach other organs and cause inflammation in various tissues of the body. Learn how to identify rheumatic fever.

Main symptoms: The main symptoms of rheumatic fever are joint pain, muscle weakness, involuntary movements and changes in the heart and heart valves.

Treatment: If the person has had pharyngitis or tonsillitis caused by S. pyogenes and has not had adequate treatment, it is possible that the bacteria may continue circulating and, if there is a predisposition, develop rheumatic fever.Therefore, it is important that S. pyogenes be treated with Benzetacil injection to prevent the development of this disease.

In confirmed cases of rheumatic fever, the general practitioner or cardiologist may recommend the use of antibiotics and medications to relieve the symptoms of inflammation, such as Ibuprofen and Prednisone, for example. In addition, it is important to drink plenty of fluids during treatment and to have a balanced diet, so that you can recover faster.

6. Necrotizing fasciitis

Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare, extensive and rapidly evolving infection characterized by the entry of bacteria, most often Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, into the body through a wound, which spreads rapidly and leads to tissue necrosis.

Main symptoms: The main symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis are high fever, intense and localized pain, presence of blisters, excessive tiredness and worsening of the wound appearance.

Treatment: If the person notices that a wound is taking a long time to heal or that its appearance is getting worse over time, it is important to go to the doctor to investigate the cause and the diagnosis of Necrotizing Fasciitis can be concluded. It is usually recommended by the doctor to administer antibiotics directly into the vein, to accelerate the elimination of the responsible bacteria and thus avoid complications. In some cases, it may be necessary to surgically remove the affected tissue to prevent the bacteria from spreading further.

7. Toxic Shock Syndrome

Toxic Shock Syndrome is characterized by the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream that can progressively lead to organ failure. This syndrome is usually related to Staphylococcus aureus, however there has been an increase in cases of Streptococcus pyogenes Toxic Shock Syndrome.

Confirmation of Toxic Shock Syndrome by S.pyogenes is made from a microbiological examination, usually blood culture, in which the presence of the bacteria in the blood is verified, in addition to the evaluation of the symptoms presented by the patient, such as low blood pressure, kidney changes, blood clotting problems, liver problems and necrosis. of the fabric, for example.

Main symptoms: The initial symptoms of Toxic Shock Syndrome are fever, red rash and hypotension. If the infection is not treated, it can still lead to multiple organ failure and, consequently, death.

Treatment: The most indicated thing in Toxic Shock Syndrome is to seek the guidance of a general practitioner or infectious disease specialist so that treatment can be started as soon as possible, as this is possible eliminate bacteria and prevent organ failure.

How diagnosis is made

The diagnosis of Streptococcus pyogenes infection is made by the doctor according to the signs and symptoms presented by the person, in addition to laboratory tests.The main test performed to identify S. pyogenes is the ASLO, which is the antistreptolysin O test, which aims to identify antibodies produced by the body against this bacterium.

The exam is simple and should be done after fasting for 4 to 8 hours, depending on the doctor's or laboratory's recommendation. Understand how the ASLO exam is done.

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