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General Practice 2023

Dispareunia: what é, causes and how to treat

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Dispareunia: what é, causes and how to treat
Dispareunia: what é, causes and how to treat

Dyspareunia is the name given to a condition that causes genital or pelvic pain during intimate contact or during climax and although it can occur in men, it is more common among women. This dysfunction can happen at any stage of life causing suffering and difficulty in the love relationship.

The pain that prevents penetration or that happens during sexual intercourse can happen due to the use of some medications, such as antidepressants, hemorrhoids, decreased vaginal lubrication and involuntary contraction of the vagina muscles, which is known as vulvodynia and which corresponds to one of the main causes of dyspareunia in women.

To combat dyspareunia and achieve pleasurable intimate contact, it is important to discover its cause and carry out the appropriate treatment, which can be guided by a sexologist, urologist or gynecologist, when the causes are physical.

Causes of dyspareunia

Normally pain during intimate contact has a psychosomatic origin and has emotional factors involved, however, it can also occur due to:

  • Little or no vaginal lubrication;
  • Infections or inflammation of the Bartholin and Skene glands that are present in the female genital region;
  • Condom placed improperly;
  • Diaphragm poorly fitted;
  • Allergic reaction to contraceptive foams or gels;
  • Infections of the cervix, uterus or fallopian tubes;
  • Endometriosis;
  • Vulvodynia, which is the involuntary contraction of the muscles of the vagina, making penetration difficult;
  • Pelvic tumors and adhesions or scarring after a cesarean;
  • Some congenital malformation, such as a compliant hymen or a septum that abnormally divides the vagina;
  • Hemorrhoids;
  • Anal fissures.

In addition, dyspareunia can arise during menopause or when the woman is undergoing some type of cancer treatment because in addition to the emotional factor not favoring intimate contact, radiotherapy also causes tissue changes that make intimate contact painful.

How to know if it is dyspareunia

The diagnosis of dyspareunia should be made by the gynecologist or urologist, after evaluating the reported symptoms and observing the genital organs. The doctor may also order tests such as a Pap smear and pelvic ultrasound to identify possible causes and thus indicate the appropriate treatment.

Unlike vaginismus, dyspareunia is more associated with physical problems and the pain can be so intense that it prevents sexual intercourse. Know other causes of pain during sexual intercourse.

How the treatment is done

Finding out the cause is the best way to treat and cure pain during sex. When the causes are physical, it may be necessary to take analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs or antibiotics, however in some cases it may be necessary to resort to surgery and when the causes are emotional it may be a good option to have sessions with a psychotherapist and a sexologist to improve intimate contact.

Some strategies that can help are:

  • Take care of the love relationship, to ensure the couple's rapport and intimacy, having time for each other;
  • Follow the treatment indicated by the doctor or sexologist;
  • Get to know your own body, your partner's body and your emotions;
  • Be rested both physically and mentally;
  • Try intimate contact in a calm and peaceful environment, away from stress;
  • Specify a date for the date and prepare for intimacy during the day;
  • Eat light meals, in small amounts, but with aphrodisiac foods, such as cinnamon, chocolate and pepper;
  • Use intimate lubricant before and during attempts;
  • Set a boundary, so your partner knows when to give up if you're not comfortable;
  • During foreplay be confident and say how much you like and are happy with your partner.

Also, being sure that the intimate relationship will not be harmful to the couple helps to gradually improve intimate contact, even if it takes an investment of months and even years to achieve a he althy intimate life.

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