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General Practice 2023

What médic does it treat? (20 most common speci alties)

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What médic does it treat? (20 most common speci alties)
What médic does it treat? (20 most common speci alties)

There are more than 55 medical speci alties and that's why it's important to know which doctor to go to for specialized treatment.

Generally, the general practitioner is the most indicated doctor to carry out a check-up or to start the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. When there is a problem or illness that requires more specific treatment, the general practitioner usually makes the referral to the most appropriate speci alty.


To find out which doctor you should see, write your symptom or the part of the body you need to treat:

The following indicates the best doctor who should treat some of the most common diseases:

Most common medical speci alties

The most common medical speci alties include:

1. Psychiatrist

Psychiatry is the speci alty that deals with various psychological disorders such as anxiety, depression, panic syndrome, eating disorder, nervous breakdown, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, personality disorders, hypochondria, post-traumatic stress, chemical dependency or Borderline syndrome, for example.

This doctor is qualified to prescribe medication such as anxiolytics, antidepressants or antipsychotics, for example, and in some cases, he can do psychotherapeutic follow-up or work together with a psychologist to give the person a comprehensive treatment.

2. Urologist

A urologist is a doctor who treats diseases related to the kidneys, bladder, urethra of men and women, and male problems with the testicles and penis.

This is the doctor who should perform the prostate exam, as well as being the speci alty indicated to treat male impotence, urinary incontinence, infertility, candidiasis, phimosis, prostatitis or balanoposthitis, for example.

In addition, the urologist also diagnoses and treats male STDs such as HPV, gonorrhea, genital herpes, syphilis, trichomoniasis, chancroid or pelvic inflammatory disease.

The urologist is also responsible for kidney transplant surgery.

3. Ophthalmologist

The ophthalmologist is the doctor who takes care of he alth and eye-related diseases such as glaucoma, macular degeneration, retinal detachment, hordeolum, pterygium, eye injuries or eye cancer.

In addition, the ophthalmologist is the doctor who makes the diagnosis and prescribes glasses for vision problems such as myopia, hyperopia, presbyopia or strabismus, for example.

This medical speci alty is also able to perform eye surgery and corneal transplantation.


4. Endocrinologist

This speci alty deals with problems related to the functioning of the endocrine glands such as the thyroid, pancreas, pituitary or adrenal glands, which can cause diseases such as hyper or hypothyroidism, diabetes, prolactinoma or pheochromocytoma.

Generally, medical evaluations are done through laboratory tests to measure the levels of hormones in the blood, as well as imaging tests to confirm the diagnosis such as ultrasound or CT scan, for example.

See more information about when to see the endocrinologist.

5. Pediatrician

The pediatrician is the doctor who treats the he alth and problems related to children, from birth to 18 years of age.

This speci alty is responsible for the comprehensive assessment of the development of children and adolescents, from vaccines, nutrition, psychomotor development to the treatment of diseases such as common childhood infections.

It is important to consult the pediatrician if the child presents signs and symptoms such as diarrhea, fever that does not improve, irritation in the baby or to ask questions about the newborn's diet to avoid complications and ensure the he alth of the child and adolescent.

6. Orthopedist

Orthopedics is the speci alty that takes care of diseases in the spine or bones such as herniated discs, parrot's beak, sprains, arthritis and osteoarthritis, for example.

In addition, an orthopedist can treat bone fractures and perform orthopedic surgery.


7. Gastroenterologist

Gastroenterology is the medical speci alty that treats problems that affect the gastrointestinal tract and which includes the esophagus, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, liver, gallbladder and pancreas.

Thus, the most common diseases treated by the gastroenterologist are fatty liver, gastritis, gastric ulcer, gastroesophageal reflux, irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn's disease, hepatitis, cirrhosis, pancreatitis or cancer of the stomach, esophagus, liver or intestine.

The gastroenterologist is also the doctor who usually makes the diagnosis of gluten intolerance and makes the referral to a nutritionist or nutritionist for the dietary changes necessary for this disease.

8. Otolaryngologist

This speci alty deals with problems related to the throat, ears and nose, such as pharyngitis, hoarseness, labyrinthitis, nose problems, laryngitis, tonsillitis or swollen adenoids, for example.

In addition, the otolaryngologist can also treat snoring and sleep apnea, which usually includes other speci alties such as pulmonologist and neurophysiologist.

9. Proctologist

Is the doctor who treats diseases that affect the large intestine, rectum and anus, such as hemorrhoids, anal fissure or anal fistula.

The proctologist may perform a digital rectal examination, perform a clinical evaluation and, in some cases, request tests such as anoscopy, rectosigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy and biopsies. This medical speci alty is also able to perform surgery such as colorectal laparoscopy, for example.


10. Obstetrician-gynecologist

The gynecologist is the doctor who treats diseases related to the female reproductive system, such as candidiasis, vaginal discharge, polycystic ovary, endometriosis, uterine myoma or urinary tract infection in women.

In addition, this speci alty also treats STDs in women such as HPV, genital herpes, gonorrhea or syphilis, for example.

Exams performed by the gynecologist may include Pap smear or colposcopy, and some imaging tests may be requested such as ultrasound, MRI or hysterosalpingography.

The gynecologist, also known as the obstetrician-gynecologist, is the doctor responsible for monitoring the pregnant woman and can request tests such as ultrasound, blood or urine tests, in addition to evaluating the baby's development and the woman's he alth until childbirth.

11. Dermatologist

The dermatologist is the doctor who treats skin, hair and nail diseases, such as ingrown toenails, herpes zoster, acne, excessive sweating, hair loss, dermatitis, skin allergy, nail fungus or cancer of the skin, for example.

In addition, the dermatologist can perform aesthetic procedures such as laser hair removal, peeling, botox application or filling with hyaluronic acid.

12. Nephrologist

Nephrology is the medical speci alty that diagnoses and treats problems related to the kidneys, such as kidney stones, severe urinary tract infection or kidney failure, for example.

The nephrologist is the doctor who monitors and treats hemodialysis and kidney transplantation.


13. Rheumatologist

The rheumatologist is the doctor who treats rheumatic or autoimmune diseases of the joints, bones, tendons, ligaments or muscles such as fibromyalgia, tendonitis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, gout, rheumatic fever, osteoporosis or ankylosing spondylitis, for example.

14. Surgeon

This medical speci alty is responsible for performing surgical procedures, mainly in the abdomen. However, there are other surgical speci alties such as neurosurgeons, cardiothoracic surgeons, oncological surgeons or pediatric surgeons, for example, who perform surgery in specific regions depending on the type of disease.

15. Cardiologist

The cardiologist is the doctor who treats problems related to the heart or blood circulation, such as high blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmia, heart attack or heart failure. See more situations in which the cardiologist should be consulted.

In addition, this speci alty may request tests to assess heart he alth, such as exercise testing, echocardiogram, electrocardiogram or magnetic resonance imaging of the heart, for example.


16. Pulmonologist

A pulmonologist is a doctor who treats diseases that affect the lungs, such as asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pulmonary emphysema, cystic fibrosis, tuberculosis or lung cancer, for example.

This speci alty can perform spirometry or bronchoscopy exams.

17. Angiologist

The angiologist is the doctor who treats circulatory diseases that affect arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels such as varicose veins in the legs, thrombosis, phlebitis or aneurysms.

This speci alty is able to perform vascular surgery that includes drying varicose veins in the legs, correction of arterial aneurysms or stent placement in arterial obstructions, for example.

18. Neurologist

The neurologist is the doctor who treats problems related to the nervous system such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, sleep disorders, headache, epilepsy, brain trauma, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or Guillain-Barré syndrome, for example.


19. Allergist or immunoallergologist

Allergology or immunoallergology is the speci alty that treats allergies in any part of the body and can be respiratory allergies such as allergic rhinitis, skin allergy such as dermatitis, food allergies such as shrimp or peanut allergy, for example.

20. Hepatologist

The hepatologist is the doctor who takes care of the liver and therefore is the speci alty indicated for when there are problems that affect this organ such as cirrhosis, fatty liver, jaundice, pancreatitis, hepatitis or liver cancer, for example.

In addition, this medical speci alty is responsible for liver transplant surgery and treatment.

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