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General Practice 2023

What are the Risks of High Cholesterol

What are the Risks of High Cholesterol
What are the Risks of High Cholesterol

Complications from high cholesterol occur when cholesterol remains uncontrolled over months and can affect people of all ages, including children and adolescents, but are more common in middle-aged or elderly people who have had uncontrolled cholesterol during years.

These possible complications are triggered in a cascading fashion and include:

1. Atherosclerosis

The first complication of high cholesterol is atherosclerosis, which consists of the accumulation of blood in the inner walls of veins and arteries. This accumulation is caused by excess fat in the bloodstream, being serious because it generates a decrease in the diameter inside the vessels, making the heart have to work harder for the blood to reach all parts of the body.

How to identify and treat: Usually there are no symptoms but there may be chest pain and it can be discovered in a cardiac catheterization exam or cardiac angiotomography, treatment can be done with reeducation food and medication.

2. High blood pressure

With the decrease in the diameter of the blood vessels, the blood passes with greater pressure through these areas and this is called high blood pressure. High blood pressure is particularly serious because it does not always have symptoms, only when it is very high and the person is at risk of heart failure.

How to identify and treat: The diagnosis of high blood pressure should always be made by a doctor, through several pressure measurements in the office or with the 24-hour ABPM exam. High blood pressure can be controlled through proper, low-s alt diet or the use of medication prescribed by a doctor.

3. Heart failure

Heart failure happens when the heart muscle is not strong enough to pump blood to all parts of the body. This usually happens in people with high blood pressure or when there is a problem with a heart valve, for example.

How to identify and treat: It generates symptoms such as tiredness, shortness of breath, cough and swelling in the legs, and the treatment is done with a low-s alt diet, medication and when it is necessary severe, with surgery or heart transplant.

4. Infarction

A heart attack occurs when there is a lack of blood in the heart vessels, which leads to the death of heart tissue due to lack of oxygen. This can happen when a vessel is completely blocked and blood cannot pass through to the heart. Its main symptom is chest pain that can arise when exerting, but a heart attack can also happen when the person is resting or sleeping.

How to identify and treat: Its symptoms are chest pain that can radiate to the left arm, jaw or back. Treatment can be done with medication, catheterization or surgery.

5. stroke

Another possible complication of high cholesterol is Cerebral Vascular Accident, or stroke, which occurs when a blood vessel in the brain is completely blocked and does not allow blood to flow to this region. The lack of blood in the brain is called an ischemic stroke and has serious consequences because the nervous tissue can die with this lack of blood and as a consequence of this there can be paralysis on one side of the body and difficulty speaking and eating, requiring treatment throughout. life.

How to identify and treat: in ischemic stroke, symptoms such as decreased strength on one side of the body, tingling on one side of the face, decreased sensitivity or difficulty speaking.Treatment can be done with medication, surgery and physical therapy for rehabilitation.

Thus, the best way to prevent all these complications is to adopt measures to lower cholesterol, reduce the consumption of foods rich in sugar and fat and practice physical activity to burn the fat accumulated under the skin and inside the vessels blood.

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