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General Practice 2023

Emoções: what são, main types and how to identify

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Emoções: what são, main types and how to identify
Emoções: what são, main types and how to identify

Emotions are a response of the body to external stimuli that involve personal, behavioral and physiological experiences, generating a feeling of pleasure or discontent. Emotions are usually spontaneous and are manifested through physical reactions such as crying, smiling, trembling and even when you blush.

Human emotions can be considered positive or negative and are natural or learned through socializing with other people. When these emotions cause disorders or damage personal and work relationships, there are ways to learn to better deal with them, such as psychotherapy, for example. Understand how psychotherapy works.

In addition, there are different types of emotions, and each person expresses them differently, according to their temperament, personality and motivation.

Main types of emotions

The main basic emotions are:

1. Joy

Joy is an emotion that is characterized by feelings of happiness, contentment, satisfaction, a sense of well-being and gratitude. A happy person can be the result of some situation such as receiving a gift, buying a house, meeting friends, receiving a promotion at work or being with family, for example.

A happy person can feel excited, hopeful, energized, inspired, fun and can better perform day-to-day activities, such as working, for example. This emotion usually changes throughout life, that is, a person may feel happier in certain situations, however, it may vary with sadness.

How to identify: joy can be identified through facial expressions, such as a smile, or body expressions, such as a more relaxed posture or a more pleasant way of speaking, for example.

2. Sadness

Sadness is a type of emotion characterized by the feeling of disappointment, lack of hope or interest, dissatisfaction, or discouragement, and which occurs mainly due to situations of loss, such as that of a family member or a work, or the diagnosis of a chronic illness, for example.

Generally, sadness tends to be felt for a short and transient period, and can give rise to other types of emotions such as guilt, shame, isolation or a feeling of emptiness.

However, when sadness is deep, has no reason to exist and is continuous, it is necessary to consult a psychiatrist, as it can become depression and this requires the use of specific medications, such as antidepressants.Check out how to differentiate sadness from depression.

How to identify: Sadness can be identified through signs such as crying, excessive desire to sleep or loss of enthusiasm for work and going out, for example.

3. Fear

Fear is a natural reaction of the body that arises when there is a situation of threat or danger, and which triggers a survival response of the organism to fight or flee the situation, and therefore, it is characterized by an increase in heart rate. heart rate, rapid breathing or muscle contraction.

However, fear can be triggered by situations that normally do not cause this emotion, such as closed places, animals or objects, and can turn into a phobia, which is exaggerated fear. Anxiety can also cause fear, as it makes the person feel in advance that some bad event is going to happen. Learn to identify the symptoms of anxiety.

How to identify: Fear can be perceived through signs such as amazement, wide eyes, trembling, excessive sweating, trying to run or hide from the threat, for example.

4. Disgust

Disgust is an emotion that can be compared to disgust or a feeling of aversion and this often happens with certain foods and smells. People can be disgusted by different objects according to culture and their own experiences.

This type of emotion can be a response of the body to certain situations, such as pregnancy or it can be the result of chemotherapy treatments, but it can also be caused by an unpleasant smell, taste or sight, for example.

How to identify: Disgust can be perceived through signs such as wrinkling the nose, curling the lips, moving away from the object or people, nausea or vomiting, for example.

5. Anger

Anger is a powerful emotion characterized by feelings of agitation, hostility, frustration, irritation or resentment, and like fear, it can play an important role in survival, preparing the body for a fight or flight situation., and be caused by differences or misunderstandings between people, by feelings of injustice and frustration.

Furthermore, anger can also be constructive, as it can motivate you to find solutions to problems or situations that generate discomfort or discomfort.

However, when anger is excessive, it is necessary to discover the cause, as this can damage the relationship between people and cause conflicting situations. The psychologist is a professional who can help people understand why this emotion is so felt and may recommend cognitive behavioral therapy. See more about how cognitive behavioral therapy is done.

How to identify: Anger can be observed through some signs such as a frown, a tendency to speak louder, stare at the other person, have an aggressive, violent behavior, hit or kick objects, or even fight.

6. Surprise

Surprise is an emotion that arises in response to an unexpected situation, which can be negative or positive, such as when receiving good or unpleasant news, or being scared, for example.

Generally, surprise is a quick emotion and its function in the body is to reorient the person's attention and redirect focus, and is characterized by fright, astonishment or muscle tension, and in the same way as fear and anger, can prepare the body for threatening situations.

How to identify: surprise can be identified with signs such as widening the eyes, raising the eyebrows, opening the mouth, screaming or gasping for breath.

Other types of emotion

There are other emotions, called secondary ones, which are based on universal basic emotions and include:

  • Optimism;
  • Contempt;
  • Shame;
  • Guilt;
  • Pride;
  • Insecurity;
  • Desperation;
  • Confusion;
  • Amazement;
  • Compassion;
  • Confidence.

These secondary emotions can vary according to culture or stimuli, in addition to the personal interpretation of everyday situations.

Consequences of emotions

Different emotions are provoked by external situations and some reactions that manifest emotions include:

  • Tummy ache;
  • Cry or laugh;
  • Trembling, especially the legs;
  • Blush;
  • Lose your voice;
  • Feeling your breath or heart racing.

Depending on emotion and behavior, it is important for the person to learn to deal with the reaction, especially when it is negative. Learn how to control negative emotions.

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