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General Practice 2023

Main col&iacuteries to treat glaucoma

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Main col&iacuteries to treat glaucoma
Main col&iacuteries to treat glaucoma

Glaucoma eye drops have the function of reducing blood pressure in the eyes, and are generally used for life to control the disease and prevent its main complication, which is blindness.

However, despite helping to control the disease, eye drops can also cause several side effects such as headache, drowsiness and itching, but it is important to continue using the medication correctly until you talk to the ophthalmologist, to evaluate whether it is possible to make changes to the treatment.

There are several types of eye medication that can be used according to each person's he alth characteristics, such as the presence of asthma, allergies, heart problems or bronchitis:

1. Adrenergic agonists

These eye drops work by decreasing the production of aqueous humor and, at a later stage, lead to increased drainage of aqueous humor, which leads to a reduction in intraocular pressure. An example of an adrenergic agonist drug is brimonidine (Alphagan).

Side Effects: headache, dry mouth, tiredness, redness, burning and stinging in the eyes, blurred vision, foreign body sensation in the eyes, folliculosis, allergic eye reactions and itchy eyes

2. Beta-blockers

Beta-blockers work by reducing intraocular pressure, and an example is timolol (Timoneo).

Side Effects: Corneal anesthesia, blurred vision, decreased blood pressure, reduced heart rate and fatigue. In people with a history of asthma, it can also cause mild shortness of breath.

3. Prostaglandin Analogues

They work by increasing the drainage of aqueous humor, which helps to reduce intraocular pressure. Some examples of this type of remedy are bimatoprost (Lumigan), latanoprost (Xalatan), travoprost (Travatan).

Side Effects: Burning, blurred vision, red eyes, itching and burning.

4. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors

These remedies work by inhibiting the secretion of aqueous humor, by inhibiting carbonic anhydrase, thus reducing intraocular pressure. Some examples of these drugs are dorzolamide and brinzolamide (Azopt).

Side Effects: Burning, burning and cloudy eyes.

5. Cholinergic agonists

They act by decreasing the resistance to the passage of aqueous humor, which leads to a reduction in intraocular pressure. The example of a cholinergic agonist eye drops is pilocarpine, for example.

Side Effects: Ciliary spasm, eye irritation, conjunctival vascular congestion, headache and eyes, ocular hyperemia, reduced vision in poor lighting and myopia induction, mainly in young people.

6. Combined formulas

These are drugs that use more than one type of active ingredient, and some examples are Cosopt, Combigan or Simbrinza, for example.

How to use correctly

To improve the effectiveness of the medication, shake the eye drops before use and drip 1 drop at a time in the lower part of the eye, in the red bag that forms when the lower eyelid is pulled down. Avoid touching the tip of the bottle to the eye.

The ideal is to lie down during the application, and after dripping the drop, close the eye and press the corner close to the nose, as this makes the medicine absorbed locally, reducing the side effects that occur when it passes into the bloodstream.

If the drop falls out of the eye, it should be dripped again, also remembering to leave at least 5 minutes between the application of different eye drops.

Food to aid in treatment

To help control the disease, you should maintain a balanced diet, rich in antioxidant foods and with important nutrients for the eyes, such as vitamins A, C and E, and minerals, such as zinc and selenium.

These nutrients are mainly present in foods such as oranges, pineapples, carrots, acerola, pumpkin, strawberries, goji berries and raspberries. In addition, by improving circulation and having antioxidant action, cranberry also helps to improve night vision and eye brightness, and can be used to relieve the symptoms of glaucoma.

It is also important to avoid consuming foods high in sugar and large amounts of s alt and caffeine, as they lead to increased blood pressure and eye pressure.

Physical activity fights high blood pressure

Frequent physical activity helps reduce eye pressure and control risk factors for glaucoma, such as diabetes and high blood pressure. Therefore, it is recommended to do exercises such as walking or cycling for at least 40 minutes, 4 times a week.

In addition, it is important to avoid exercises in positions that leave the body upside down, such as in yoga or pilates classes, for example, as this can increase pressure on the head and eye, and it is necessary to ask medical authorization before practicing this type of physical activity.

See other types of treatment for glaucoma.

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