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Ophthalmological examination is a test used to evaluate the eyes, eyelids and tear ducts in order to investigate eye diseases such as glaucoma or cataract, for example.
Visual acuity test is performed in the eye exam, which aims to evaluate the person's vision, however, other more specific exams can be done, such as eye movements or eye pressure assessment, which may include the use of of machines or specific instruments, causing no pain and not requiring any preparation before performing the exam.
Ophthalmological examination is indicated for all people, being the first test carried out while still in the maternity hospital, which is known as the little eye test. In the case of people diagnosed with eye disorders,may be indicated
What is the exam for
Ophthalmological examination serves to evaluate all the characteristics of the eye, which involves the evaluation of the person's visual ability, measurement of pressure in the eye, evaluation of the tear ducts and characteristics of the retina, for example.
Visual acuity examination is one of the best-known components of the eye examination, as it serves to assess the person's vision potential by placing a sign, with letters of different sizes or symbols, in front of the person to read what is being shown, being this exam indicated as a routine or in public tenders or to obtain or renew a driver's license, for example.
In addition to the visual acuity exam, other exams that are present in the ophthalmologic exam are:
- Examination of eye movements: serves to assess whether the eyes are aligned, and the doctor may ask the patient to look in different directions, or point at an object, such as a pen and observe eye movements;
- Fundoscopy: is used to diagnose changes in the retina or optic nerve. The doctor uses an accessory lens to examine the patient;
- Tonometry: is used to measure the pressure inside the eye, through a blue light projected on the individual's eye and through contact with a measuring device or through a blowing device;
- Evaluation of the lacrimal pathways: The doctor analyzes through eye drops and materials the amount of tears, their permanence in the eye, their production and their removal.
In addition to these exams, the ophthalmologist may advise the person to perform other more specific exams such as computerized keratoscopy, daily blood pressure curve, retinal mapping, pachymetry and visual perimetry, depending on the suspicions that arise during the ophthalmologic exam.
When is indicated
The eye exam varies according to the age of the person and the presence or absence of vision problems, and people who have vision problems should consult the ophthalmologist at least once a year and, in case of any change in vision, such as eye pain or blurred vision, for example, you should seek to see your eye doctor as soon as possible.
However, all people should have routine eye exams and should go to the doctor:
- At birth: you should take the eye test at the maternity hospital or at an eye clinic
- At 5 years old: before starting school it is essential to take the exam to diagnose vision problems, such as myopia, which can hinder the learning process, and must be repeated repeat the exam annually during this period;
- Between the ages of 20 and 40: you should seek to go to the ophthalmologist at least twice during this time;
- Between the ages of 40 and 65: eyes should be evaluated every 1-2 years, as eyesight is more likely to get tired;
- After 65 years: it is important to check the eyes every year.
In addition, the doctor may recommend more frequent and more specific tests if the person has diabetes, high blood pressure, glaucoma, or has a visually demanding job such as working with small parts or at the computer.