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General Practice 2023

Sinusopathy: what é, symptoms and treatment

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Sinusopathy: what é, symptoms and treatment
Sinusopathy: what é, symptoms and treatment

Sinusopathy, better known as sinusitis, is a disease that occurs when the sinuses become inflamed and this leads to the formation of secretions that obstruct the nasal mucosa and the bony cavities of the face. Symptoms of sinusopathy can be pressure-type headache, presence of greenish or yellowish phlegm, cough and fever, and most of the time they are associated with other diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis.

Generally, sinus disease is caused by a virus responsible for the flu, but it can also be caused by infection by bacteria and fungi, and in these cases sinus disease can be chronic, that is, it persists for more than eight weeks.

Treatment is indicated by an otolaryngologist and depends on the cause and severity of sinusopathy, however, it mainly consists of nasal washing with saline solution and medication to relieve symptoms, and the use of antibiotics may be recommended for people with bacterial sinusopathy.See more how to make a nasal wash for sinusitis.

Main symptoms

Symptoms of sinus disease often appear after a flu, cold or rhinitis crisis and can be:

  • Headache;
  • Increased sensitivity around the cheeks, eyes and forehead;
  • Stuffy nose;
  • Cough;
  • Yellow or green phlegm;
  • Reduced sense of smell;
  • Fever.

In some cases, sinus disease can be confused with a dental problem, because it can also cause toothache and bad breath. In children, signs of sinus disease can also include irritability, difficulty eating, and breathing through the mouth most of the time.

How the diagnosis is made

The diagnosis of sinus disease can be made by a general practitioner, but more often it is performed by the otolaryngologist through physical examination and analysis of a person's symptoms, however, some tests may be recommended, such as nasofibroscopy, which serves to evaluate the nasal cavity and other structures, through a thin tube with a camera at its end.Learn more about nasofibroscopy.

The doctor may also request tests such as computed tomography, as it is considered the best imaging technique to diagnose sinusopathy, as it is possible to observe the structures of the face, presence of secretions and bone thickening of the walls of the sinuses. The X-ray, nowadays is not so used anymore, because it is not able to show accurate images of the sinuses, but it can still be indicated by some doctors.

In addition, the doctor may also request a microbiology exam, if there are signs and symptoms indicative of sinusopathy as a result of fungal or bacterial infection. This exam is done by collecting the nasal secretion that is sent to the laboratory with the aim of identifying which microorganism is causing the sinusopathy. Most of the time, microbiological examination is indicated for people who do not respond to conventional treatment and who have recurrent episodes of this condition.

What types

Sinopathy is an inflammation of the sinuses, which are bony cavities in the face, which can affect both sides of the face, called bilateral sinusopathy and can be classified according to the affected part, as:

  • Ethmoidal sinusopathy: occurs when inflammation in the area around the eyes;
  • Sphenoidal sinus disease: is the inflammatory process of the part behind the eyes;
  • Frontal sinusopathy: occurs in cases where inflammation affects the cavities in the forehead region;
  • Maxillary sinusopathy: consists of inflammation of the sinuses located on the cheekbone.

Often, sinus disease can appear in various parts of the face, as these structures are very close to each other and this can generate more intense pain in the head.

Furthermore, this condition can be acute, which is when the sinus disease lasts less than 4 weeks and is mainly caused by a virus, and it can also be chronic where the sinus disease persists for 8 to 12 weeks. Check out more about what is chronic sinusitis and the symptoms.

Treatment options

Treatment for sinus disease depends on the affected area, the severity of the symptoms and the causes, but it usually consists of performing a nasal wash with saline solution, as this helps to eliminate secretions and hydrate the nasal mucosa. The use of decongestant sprays to unclog the nose, antiallergic, analgesics, anti-inflammatories and, in some cases, corticosteroids may be recommended.

When the doctor confirms that the sinus disease is caused by bacteria, he will prescribe antibiotics, which can be amoxicillin, azithromycin or clarithromycin, which must be used for a period of at least 7 days or according to the recommendation doctor, even if the symptoms disappear. Some natural remedies can be used to improve the symptoms of sinus disease, such as inhaling eucalyptus steam. Check out more other types of home remedies for sinusitis.

In addition, the doctor may indicate surgical treatment in cases where the person does not respond to treatment with the indicated drugs, when there is a worsening of the clinical condition such as increased secretion and nasal obstruction, or when sinusopathy is associated to some persistent symptoms of lung problems.

Possible causes

Sinopathy is a disease caused by inflammation of the sinuses that leads to obstruction and swelling of these bony cavities of the face and can be caused by respiratory allergies, such as allergic rhinitis, which make the nose unable to perform its functions. functions properly, contributing to the entry of viruses and bacteria in this region.

In addition, there are other factors that can lead to the onset of sinus disease such as cigarette use, low immunity, dental infections and asthma. See more about what asthma is and the main symptoms.

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