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First aid in sport is mainly related to muscle injuries, injuries and fractures. Knowing how to act in these situations and what to do so that the condition does not worsen, because in cases of fractures, for example, unnecessary movement can worsen the degree of injury to the bone.
Another recurring situation during sports is the appearance of cramps, which are involuntary contractions of muscles, which can occur in the legs, arms or feet. Cramps can happen from dehydration or muscle fatigue for example, but they are easily treated with stretching and rest. See which exercises done at home help eliminate cramps.
1. Muscle injury
First aid for muscle injuries in sport helps to reduce pain and help the person not need to be away from practice for a long time. However muscle injury is divided into categories such as strains, bruises, strains, sprains and sprains. All these injuries damage the muscle to some degree and, in certain cases, it is necessary for a doctor to assess the degree of injury, but in most cases recovery is not long and does not leave sequelae.
First aid for muscle injury includes:
- Sit or lay the person down;
- Place the injured part in the most comfortable position. If it's a leg or an arm, you can lift the limb;
- Apply a cold compress to the lesion for a maximum of 15 minutes;
- Tightly wrap the affected area with bandages.
In certain cases in sport, when muscle injuries occur, the muscles can become inflamed, stretched, or torn. It is recommended to see a doctor if the pain continues for more than 3 days.
See other ways to relieve muscle pain at home.
Skin injuries are one of the most common in sports, and are divided into two types: closed-skin injuries and open-skin injuries.
In closed skin wounds the skin color changes to a red which in a few hours can darken to purplish spots. In these cases it is indicated:
- Apply cold compresses on the site for 15 minutes, twice a day;
- Immobilize the affected region.
In cases of open skin lesions, more care is recommended, as there is a risk of infections due to skin breakage and bleeding. In these cases you should:
- Wash the wound and surrounding skin with soap and water;
- Place an antiseptic solution such as Curativ or Povidine on and around the wound;
- Apply a sterile gauze or compress or band-aid until the wound heals.
If the wound continues to hurt, swell or is very hot, consult a doctor. Check out the 5 steps to heal a wound faster.
In case of perforation with a pen, piece of iron, wood or any other object, do not remove them, due to the risk of bleeding.
A fracture is a break or crack in a bone, which can be open, when the skin is torn, or internal, when the bone breaks but the skin does not tear. This type of accident causes pain, swelling, abnormal movement, limb instability or even deformity, so the victim should not be held and it is very important to wait for the ambulance so that the victim receives medical care as soon as possible.
Some signs that help identify a fracture are:
- Intense localized pain;
- Total loss of limb mobility;
- Presence of deformation in the skin of the region;
- Exposure of bone through the skin;
- Skin color change.
If a fracture is suspected, it is recommended:
- Immediately call an ambulance by calling 192;
- Do not put any pressure on the fracture area;
- In case of open fracture, wash with saline solution;
- Do not make unnecessary movements on the limb;
- Immobilize the fractured part while waiting for the ambulance.
Usually the treatment for fractures, whether open or closed, is done by total immobilization of the fractured limb. The treatment period is long, and in some cases it can reach up to 90 days. Learn about the fracture recovery process.