Table of contents:
The first aid for fire victims is:
- Keep calm and call the fire department and an ambulance by calling 192 or 193;
- Wet a clean cloth and tie it to your face, like a mask, to prevent you from breathing smoke;
- If there is a lot of smoke, stay crouched close to the ground where the heat is lower and there is more oxygen, as shown in image 1;
- Safely remove the victim from the fire scene and lay him on the ground as shown in Figure 2;
- If the victim's body is on fire, roll them on the ground until they go out;
- Check that the victim is breathing and that the heart is beating;
- Give the victim room to breathe;
- Do not offer liquids.
It is essential to offer a 100% oxygen mask to all victims who have inhaled smoke during a fire to reduce the chances of oxygen monoxide poisoning, fainting and subsequent death. Here's what to do when someone inhales too much smoke.
If the victim cannot breathe alone, give mouth-to-mouth resuscitation:
- Lay the subject on his back
- Loosen the individual's clothes
- Straighten his neck back, leaving his chin up
- Open the subject's mouth and try to see if there is any object or liquid in their throat and remove it with your fingers or tweezers
- Cover the subject's nose with your fingers
- Put your mouth on his mouth and blow the air that comes out of your mouth into his mouth
- Repeat this 20 times per minute
- Always be aware of the individual's chest for any movement
When the individual starts breathing again on his own, remove your mouth from his mouth and let him breathe freely, but pay attention to his breathing, as he may stop breathing again, so it will be necessary to start over from the beginning.
Adult cardiac massage
If the victim's heart is not beating, give heart massage:
- Lay the victim on the floor face up;
- Position the victim's head a little back, leaving the chin higher;
- Support your open hands on top of each other, with your fingers up, you will only use your palm;
- Place your hands, on the left side of the victim's chest (on the heart) and let your own arms stretch out;
- Push your hands hard and fast over the heart counting 2 pushes per second (cardiac compression);
- Perform cardiac compression 30 times in a row and then blow the air from your mouth into the victim's mouth;
- Repeat this procedure without interruption checking that the victim is breathing again.
It is very important not to interrupt the compressions, so if the first person who assisted the victim gets tired of doing the cardiac massage, it is important that another person continues doing the compressions in a relay scheme, always respecting the same rhythm.
Cardiac massage in infants and children
In the case of cardiac massage in children, follow the same procedure, but do not use your hands, but your fingers.