Table of contents:
- Types of azoospermia
- Main causes of azoospermia
- How to confirm the diagnosis
- How the treatment is done
2023 Author: Benjamin Dyson | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-27 20:34
Azoospermia corresponds to the complete absence of sperm in the semen, being one of the main causes of infertility in men. This condition can happen due to obstruction in the place where the spermatozoa should pass or be a consequence of a blow to the testicles, for example.
Although azoospermia is one of the main causes of infertility in men, there are also other problems that can prevent a man from getting his partner pregnant, such as infections or hormonal changes. Know the main causes of infertility in men and how to treat them.
The treatment of azoospermia is done according to the cause, and surgery is usually indicated, especially when there is obstruction in the vas deferens. Thus, by clearing the passage, it is possible to restore man's reproductive capacity. However, it is important that a spermogram be performed to assess the characteristics of the sperm and ensure their viability.
Types of azoospermia
Azoospermia can be classified into two main types according to the probable cause, namely:
- Obstructive azoospermia: there is obstruction where the sperm should pass, which may be due to changes in the vas deferens, epididymis or due to vasectomy surgery, for example;
- Non-obstructive azoospermia: is characterized by the lack of sperm production, which can be a consequence of some congenital disease or due to blows to the testicles.
The type of azoospermia is identified by the urologist through imaging tests, such as abdominal and testicular ultrasound, in addition to laboratory tests.
Main causes of azoospermia
Azoospermia is caused by any condition that affects the production, storage or transport of sperm to the urethra. So the main causes include:
- Injuries to the testicles or epididymis caused by blows;
- Infections in the male reproductive system;
- Presence of tumor in the testicle;
- Side effect of some chemotherapy drug;
- Cryptorchidism, which is a situation where the testicles do not descend into the scrotum;
- Recent surgery in the pelvic region;
- Infections in the genital area.
In addition, the presence of genetic alterations can also cause difficulty in sperm production, eventually causing azoospermia from birth.
How to confirm the diagnosis
The most common way to make the diagnosis of azoospermia is through a spermogram, a laboratory test in which a sample of the man's semen is evaluated, allowing to verify the quality and quantity of sperm present. Understand how the spermogram is done.
However, even if the spermogram indicates alterations or absence of sperm in the semen, the urologist must request other complementary tests to confirm the diagnosis and identify its cause. Thus, imaging tests, such as abdominal and testicular ultrasound, may be recommended, in addition to laboratory tests, such as hormone dosage and research for genetic alterations, in some cases.
How the treatment is done
The treatment of azoospermia is done according to the cause, but normally when it comes to obstructive azoospermia, the treatment is surgical and aims to correct the cause, allowing the sperm to pass through again.
In the case of non-obstructive azoospermia, the treatment is more complicated, and the man must undergo complementary exams, mainly hormonal, to verify his reproductive capacity.
In any case, it is always very important that the man follows up with a psychologist, as the diagnosis can create negative emotions, which can end up generating depression, especially since some men can feel their masculinity affected.