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Purple spots are caused by extravasation of blood in the skin, due to a rupture of blood vessels, usually caused by fragility of blood vessels, bumps, changes in platelets or the ability of blood to clot.
Most of the time, these spots, which are known as purpura or ecchymoses, appear and disappear spontaneously, without causing symptoms, or may present with a slight local pain. In addition to blows, some of the main causes for the appearance of purple spots on the skin are:
1. Hair fragility
Capillary fragility happens when small blood vessels, responsible for the circulation of the skin, are fragile and spontaneously rupture, causing blood leakage under the skin, and the main causes are:
- Aging, which can weaken the structures that form and support the vessels, so it is very common in the elderly;
- Allergies, in which there is angioedema, that is, swelling of the vessels due to an allergic reaction that can rupture, causing bleeding;
- Genetic predisposition, which is very common in women, especially in certain periods of the menstrual cycle, which may also be associated with hormonal changes in women;
- Purpura por melancholia, in which purple spots are observed on the skin due to situations of stress, anxiety and especially sadness, for unknown reasons;
- Vitamin C deficiency, which causes weakness in the walls of blood vessels, which can rupture spontaneously.
In some cases, the cause of capillary fragility may not be detected, and it is also common for some people to have purple spots more easily than others, without this indicating a disease or he alth problem.
How to treat: purpura and ecchymoses due to capillary fragility, generally, appear and disappear spontaneously, without any need to be done. However, it is possible to make them disappear more quickly, with the use of ointments for bruises, such as Hirudoid, Thrombocid or Desonol, for example, which reduce inflammation and facilitate blood reabsorption, reducing the time of the stain.
Natural treatment: an option of home treatment is to take orange juice or vitamin C supplement, as it helps to restore collagen and heal the vessel faster. In addition, making compresses with warm water on the affected area also helps the body to re-absorb blood more quickly.
2. Diseases that alter blood clotting
Some diseases can interfere with blood clotting, either by reducing the number of platelets or altering their function, or by altering blood clotting factors, which facilitates blood extravasation through blood vessels and formation of blood clots. stains.Some of the main causes are:
- Virus infections, such as Dengue and Zika, or bacteria, which affect platelet survival due to changes in immunity;
- Vitamin and mineral deficiency such as iron, folic acid and vitamin B12;
- Autoimmune diseases, which affect platelet survival due to changes in the person's immunity, such as lupus, vasculitis, immune and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, or hypothyroidism, for example;
- Liver diseases, which interfere with blood clotting;
- Bone marrow diseases, such as aplastic anemia, myelodysplasia or cancer, for example;
- Genetic disorders, such as hemophilia or hereditary thrombocytopenias.
Spots caused by diseases are usually more serious than capillary fragility, and their intensity varies according to the cause.
How to treat: the treatment of clotting disorders depends on their cause, and it may be necessary, according to the doctor's recommendation, to use medication to regulate immunity, such as corticoids, the treatment of infections, the filtration of blood, the removal of the spleen, or, as a last resort, the transfusion of platelets. Understand better what the main causes are and how to treat platelet reduction.
3. Use of medication
Some drugs, by interfering with the ability of blood to clot or the action of platelets, predispose to the formation of purpura or ecchymosis on the skin, and some examples are AAS, Clopidogrel, Paracetamol, Hydralazine, Thiamine, chemotherapy or drugs from the class of anticoagulants, such as Heparin, Marevan or Rivaroxaban, for example.
How to treat: the possibility of removing or changing the medication that causes bleeding should be evaluated with the doctor and, during its use, it is important to avoid blows, to decrease the risk of bleeding.
Causes of purple spots in babies
Generally, the purple spots that are born with the baby, grayish or purplish in color, of various sizes or in different places on the body, are called Mongolian spots, and do not represent any he alth problem and are not the result of no trauma.
These spots disappear spontaneously around 2 years of age, without the need for any specific treatment, with about 15 minutes of sunbathing, before 10 am, per day. Learn how to identify and treat Mongolian spots.
Spots that appear after birth may result from a local impact, capillary fragility, or, more rarely, from a clotting disease, and it is important to consult a pediatrician to further investigate the cause.
If these spots appear in large numbers, worsen throughout the day or are accompanied by other symptoms, such as fever, bleeding or drowsiness, contact your pediatrician or go immediately to the pediatric emergency room., to assess the presence of diseases that interfere with clotting, such as hereditary blood clotting defects, diseases that cause platelet changes, or infections, for example.