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Diagnostic Tests 2023

Glycêmica curve: what é, what it is for and reference valuesê

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Glycêmica curve: what é, what it is for and reference valuesê
Glycêmica curve: what é, what it is for and reference valuesê

The glycemic curve test, also called the oral glucose tolerance test, or OGTT, is a test that can be ordered by the doctor with the aim of helping in the diagnosis of diabetes, pre-diabetes, insulin resistance or other changes related to pancreatic cells.

This test is performed based on the analysis of fasting blood glucose concentration and after ingestion of a sugary liquid provided by the laboratory. Thus, the doctor can assess how the body works in the face of high concentrations of glucose. The OGTT is an important test during pregnancy, being included in the list of prenatal tests, as gestational diabetes can pose a risk to both the mother and the baby.

This test is usually requested when fasting blood glucose is altered and the doctor needs to assess the person's risk of having diabetes. For pregnant women, if fasting blood glucose is between 85 and 91 mg/dl, it is recommended to perform the OGTT at around 24 to 28 weeks of gestation and investigate the risk of diabetes during pregnancy. Learn more about risk


Glycemic curve reference values

The interpretation of blood glucose values after 8 hours of fasting are:

Fasting blood glucose value
Normal Less than 100 mg/dL
Decreased tolerance Between 100 and 125 mg/dL
Diabetes Equal to or greater than 126 mg/dL

The interpretation of the glycemic curve 2 hours after drinking the sugary liquid is as follows:

120-minute blood glucose value
Normal 140 mg/dL
Decreased tolerance Between 140 and 199 mg/dL
Diabetes Equal to or greater than 200 mg/dL

In the previous tables, only the values in fasting condition and after 120 minutes of drinking are mentioned, as these are the most relevant results to aid in the diagnosis of pre-diabetes and diabetes.

When the result is impaired glucose tolerance, it means that there is a high risk of developing diabetes, which can be considered pre-diabetes. In addition, only one sample of this test is not enough for the diagnosis of the disease, and fasting blood glucose should be collected on another day to confirm.

If you think you may have diabetes, better understand the symptoms and treatment of diabetes mellitus.

How the exam is done

The test is carried out with the aim of verifying how the body reacts to high concentrations of glucose. For this, the first blood collection should be done with the patient fasting for at least 8 hours. After the first collection, the patient should drink a sugary liquid that contains about 75 g of glucose, in the case of adults, or 1.75 g of glucose for each kilo of the child.

After the consumption of the liquid, some collections are made according to the medical recommendation. Normally, 3 blood collections are carried out until 2 hours of drinking are completed, that is, collections are made before taking the liquid and 60 and 120 minutes after consumption of the liquid. In some cases, the doctor may request more dosages until the 2 hours of liquid consumption are completed.

The collected samples are sent to the laboratory, where analyzes are carried out in order to identify the amount of sugar in the blood. The result can be released in the form of a graph, indicating the amount of glucose in the blood at each moment, which allows a more direct view of the case, or in the form of individual results, with the doctor having to make the graph to assess the he alth condition. of the patient.

Oral glucose tolerance test in pregnancy

The OGTT exam is essential for pregnant women, as it allows the risk of gestational diabetes to be verified. The test is performed in the same way, that is, the woman needs to be fasting for at least 8 hours and, after the first collection, she must drink the sugary liquid so that the dosages are then carried out according to the medical recommendation.

The collections should be done with the woman lying down comfortably to avoid discomfort, dizziness and falling from one's own height, for example. The reference values of the OGTT test in pregnant women are different and the test should be repeated if any changes are observed.

This exam is important during prenatal care, and is recommended to be performed between the 24th and 28th week of gestational age, and aims to make an early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. High blood glucose levels during pregnancy can be dangerous for both the woman and the baby, with premature birth and neonatal hypoglycemia, for example.

Better understand the symptoms, risks, and diet in gestational diabetes.

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