General Practice 2022

7 exams that the recém-born must do

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7 exams that the recém-born must do
7 exams that the recém-born must do

Shortly after birth, the baby needs to undergo a series of tests in order to identify the presence of changes that indicate the presence of genetic or metabolic diseases, such as phenylketonuria, sickle cell anemia and congenital hypothyroidism, for example. In addition, these tests can help identify vision and hearing problems and the presence of tongue-tied, for example.

The mandatory tests for newborns are the foot test, blood typing, the ear test, the little eye test, the little heart test and the little tongue test and are indicated in the first week of life, preferably still in the maternity, because if any change is identified, the treatment can be started right away, promoting the normal development and quality of life of the baby.

1. Foot test

The heel prick test is a mandatory exam, indicated between the 3rd and 5th day of the baby's life. The test is made from drops of blood taken from the baby's heel and serves to identify genetic and metabolic diseases such as phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, sickle cell anemia, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, cystic fibrosis and biotinidase deficiency.

There is also the expanded foot test, which is indicated when the mother has had some change or infection during pregnancy, and it is important that the baby is tested for other diseases. This exam is not part of the mandatory free exams and must be performed in private clinics.

Learn more about the heel prick.

2. Ear test

The ear test, also called neonatal hearing screening, is a mandatory test offered free of charge by the SUS that aims to identify hearing disorders in babies.

This exam is carried out in the maternity ward, preferably between 24 and 48 hours after the baby's life, and does not cause pain or discomfort to the baby, and is often performed during sleep. Learn more about the little ear test.

3. Eye test

The eye test, also known as the red reflex test, is usually offered free of charge by the maternity hospital or he alth centers and is performed to detect vision problems such as cataracts, glaucoma or strabismus. This test is usually performed in the maternity hospital by the pediatrician. Understand how the eye test is done.

4. Blood typing

Blood typing is an important test to identify the baby's blood type, which can be A, B, AB or O, positive or negative. The test is performed with umbilical cord blood as soon as the baby is born.

In this test, it is possible to track the risk of blood incompatibility, that is, when the mother is RH negative and the baby is born RH positive, or even when the mother has blood type O and the baby, type A or B.Among the problems of blood incompatibility, we can highlight the possible condition of neonatal jaundice.

5. Little heart test

The little heart test is mandatory and free, carried out in the maternity ward between 24 and 48 hours after birth. The exam consists of measuring blood oxygenation and the newborn's heartbeat with the aid of an oximeter, which is a kind of bracelet, placed on the baby's wrist and foot.

If any alteration is detected, the baby is referred for an echocardiogram, which is a test that detects defects in the baby's heart.

6. Language test

The linguinha test is a mandatory test performed by a speech therapist to diagnose problems with the tongue brake in newborns, such as ankyloglossia, popularly known as tongue-tie. This condition can impair breastfeeding or compromise the act of swallowing, chewing and speaking, so if detected soon it is possible to indicate the most appropriate treatment.See more about the linguinha test.

7. Hip test

The hip test is a clinical examination, in which the pediatrician examines the baby's legs. It is usually performed in the maternity ward and in the first consultation with the pediatrician.

The purpose of the test is to identify changes in hip development that can later result in pain, limb shortening, or osteoarthritis.

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