Table of contents:
- 1. Pelvic ultrasound
- 2. Pap smear
- 3. Infectious screening
- 4. Colposcopy
- 5. Hysterosalpingography
- 6. MRI
- 7. Diagnostic laparoscopy
- 8. Breast ultrasound
The gynecological exams requested by the gynecologist annually aim to guarantee the well-being and he alth of the woman and to diagnose or treat some diseases such as endometriosis, HPV, abnormal vaginal discharge or bleeding outside the menstrual period.
It is recommended to go to the gynecologist at least once a year, especially after the first menstruation, even if there are no symptoms, since there are gynecological diseases that are asymptomatic, especially in the initial phase, and the diagnosis is made during the consultation gynecological.
Thus, based on some tests, the doctor can evaluate the woman's pelvic region, which corresponds to the ovaries and uterus, and the breasts, being able to identify some diseases early. Some examples of exams that can be requested in the gynecological routine are:
1. Pelvic ultrasound
Pelvic ultrasound is an imaging test that allows you to observe the ovaries and uterus, helping in the early detection of some diseases, such as polycystic ovaries, enlarged uterus, endometriosis, vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, ectopic pregnancy and infertility.
This exam is performed by introducing a transducer into the belly or into the vagina, then the exam is called transvaginal ultrasound, which provides clear and detailed images of the female reproductive system, allowing the doctor to identify changes. Understand what it is and when to do the transvaginal ultrasound.
2. Pap smear
The Pap smear, also known as a preventive examination, is performed by scraping the cervix and the collected sample is sent to the laboratory for analysis, allowing the identification of vaginal infections and changes in the vagina and in the uterus that may be indicative of cancer.The exam does not hurt, but there may be discomfort when the doctor scrapes the cells from the uterus.
The exam must be performed at least once a year and is indicated for all women who have already started their sexual life or who are over 25 years of age. Learn more about the Pap smear and how it's done.
3. Infectious screening
Infectious screening aims to identify the occurrence of infectious diseases that can be sexually transmitted, such as herpes, HIV, syphilis, chlamydia and gonorrhea, for example.
This infectious screening can be done through a blood test or through the microbiological analysis of urine or vaginal secretion, which in addition to indicating whether or not there is infection, indicates which microorganism is responsible and the best treatment.
Colposcopy allows direct observation of the cervix and other genital structures, such as the vulva and vagina, and can identify benign cell changes, vaginal tumors and signs of infection or inflammation.
Colposcopy is usually requested by the gynecologist in a routine exam, but it is also indicated when the pap smear has abnormal results. This exam does not hurt, but it can cause some discomfort, usually burning, when the gynecologist applies a substance to visualize possible changes in the woman's uterus, vagina or vulva. Understand how colposcopy is performed.
Hysterosalpingography is an X-ray exam in which contrast is used that allows the cervix and fallopian tubes to be observed, identifying possible causes of infertility, in addition to salpingitis, which is inflammation of the uterine tubes. See how salpingitis is treated.
This exam does not hurt, but it can cause discomfort, so the doctor may recommend analgesics or anti-inflammatory drugs before and after the exam.
Magnetic resonance allows to observe, with good resolution, images of the genital structures for the detection of malignant alterations, such as fibroids, ovarian cysts, cancer of the uterus and vagina. In addition, it is also used to monitor changes that may arise in the female reproductive system, to check whether or not there has been a response to treatment, or whether surgery should be performed or not.
This is an exam that does not use radiation and gadolinium can be used to perform the exam with contrast. Find out what it is for and how MRI is performed.
7. Diagnostic laparoscopy
Diagnostic laparoscopy or videolaparoscopy is an exam that, through the use of a thin tube and with light, allows the visualization of Organs reproductive organs inside the abdomen, allowing to identify endometriosis, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic pain or causes of infertility.
Although this exam is considered the best technique for diagnosing endometriosis, it is not the first option, as it is an invasive technique that requires general anesthesia, and transvaginal ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging is more recommended.Learn how diagnostic and surgical laparoscopy is performed.
8. Breast ultrasound
Usually, the breast ultrasound exam is performed after feeling a lump during breast palpation or if the mammogram is inconclusive, especially in women who have large breasts and have breast cancer in the family.
Ultrasonography should not be confused with mammography, nor does it replace this exam, being only able to complement the breast evaluation. Although this test can also identify lumps that may indicate breast cancer, mammography is the most indicated test to be performed in women with suspected breast cancer.
To perform the exam, the woman must lie on a stretcher, without a blouse and bra, so that the doctor can apply a gel on the breasts and then apply the device, simultaneously observing on the computer screen if there are any changes.