General Practice 2022

Rhinitis: what é, symptoms, causes and treatment

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Rhinitis: what é, symptoms, causes and treatment
Rhinitis: what é, symptoms, causes and treatment

Rhinitis is inflammation of the nasal mucosa that generates symptoms such as frequent runny nose, coughing, sneezing, headache and red eyes, tearing and itching, for example. Rhinitis is, in most cases, a result of allergy to dust, mite or fur, but it can also happen as a consequence of the use of nasal decongestants, for example, resulting in rhinitis medication.

The treatment of rhinitis must be guided by the doctor and may vary according to its cause, and the use of anti-allergic drugs, hygiene and cleaning of the environment and immunotherapy may be indicated, in cases where treatment with medicines is not enough.

Rhinitis symptoms

The main symptom of rhinitis is a runny nose (runny nose), in addition to frequent sneezing and reddened and watery eyes. Other symptoms that may arise and be indicative of rhinitis are:

  • Persistent dry cough;
  • Burning sensation in eyes, nose and mouth;
  • Vomiting, in case of excessive coughing;
  • Dark circles;
  • Sore throat;
  • Headache;
  • Swollen eyes;
  • Decreased hearing and smell.

Rhinitis can favor the emergence of other diseases, such as otitis and conjunctivitis due to the accumulation of secretions in the airways and compromised immune system function.

Possible causes

Rhinitis can be caused by allergies to dust, mites, animal skin flakes, tree or flower pollen, pollution or smoke. In addition, it can happen as a result of a viral or bacterial infection in the airways.

How is rhinitis diagnosed

For the diagnosis of rhinitis, it is recommended that the person consult an allergist or general practitioner so that the symptoms and their frequency are evaluated. The doctor may recommend performing a blood test to check if the amount of IgE is high and an allergy test to be able to identify what the individual is allergic to. See how the allergy test is done.

This diagnosis can be made from 5 years of age, because before this age group the results may be incorrect. Therefore, if it is suspected that the child suffers from allergic rhinitis, what should be done is to try to identify the one he is allergic to and, therefore, it is recommended that parents keep the house very clean, free from dust, use hypoallergenic washing powder and fabric softener, and the child's bedding and clothing must be cotton. In the bedroom, you should avoid stuffed animals, rugs and curtains.

What is the difference between rhinitis, sinusitis and rhinosinusitis?

Rhinitis is inflammation of the nasal mucosa, which usually occurs in allergy, and which manifests itself with frequent sneezing, runny nose, watery eyes and burning sensation in the eyes, nose and mouth.

Sinusitis is inflammation of the sinuses and is more associated with bacterial infections. In addition, the most characteristic symptoms of sinusitis are pain and heaviness in the head, usually due to the accumulation of secretions. Rhinosinusitis corresponds to inflammation of the nasal mucosa and sinuses and has the same symptoms as sinusitis. Learn more about identifying and treating sinusitis.

Types of rhinitis

Rhinitis can be classified into some types according to the cause, the main ones being:

1. Allergic rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is the most common form of rhinitis and its main symptom is a runny nose.The secretion is small and transparent, but constant or frequent and its treatment consists of keeping the individual away from what he is allergic to and, in some cases, the doctor may indicate the use of antiallergic medicine, such as Loratadine, for example. However, the individual should not use this remedy in an exaggerated way to avoid its side effects and to avoid compromising the liver in the long term and, therefore, it is very important to find out the cause of the allergy so that it is eliminated and the individual no longer show the symptoms of rhinitis.

If the symptoms of allergic rhinitis persist for more than 3 months, it can be said that allergic rhinitis has progressed to chronic rhinitis. Check out the symptoms and treatment for chronic rhinitis.

2. Vasomotor rhinitis

Vasomotor rhinitis is inflammation of the nasal mucosa caused by changes in the individual's own nose, not caused by allergy. In this type of rhinitis, the person always has a runny nose, but allergy tests are always negative.

In this case, excess nasal secretion is caused by excessive dilation of blood and lymph vessels present inside the nose and sometimes the best treatment is surgery. Understand what vasomotor rhinitis is and how to treat it.

3. Drug rhinitis

It happens when the person self-medicates, that is, decides to use medication without proper medical guidance. This is the case with the use of nasal decongestant, which is used by many people but can cause irritation to the nasal mucosa when used frequently.

Treatment for rhinitis

The treatment for rhinitis will depend on the cause, and it is important to follow the doctor's instructions. If the rhinitis is caused by an allergy, what you can do is keep the person away from what makes them allergic, keep the nose very clean using nasal washes, and on the most critical days use an allergy medicine. Learn how to perform the nasal wash correctly.

Another form of treatment for rhinitis is the allergy shot that the person has, which is called desensitizing immunotherapy, but this is only recommended when the medications have no effect. Usually, the doctor recommends the use of some medicines, such as corticosteroids and antihistamines, such as phenergan, sinutab, claritin and adnax. There are also some home remedies that can be used to treat rhinitis. Find out how the home treatment for rhinitis is done.

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