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PMS symptoms are relatively common and can be felt by some women on a physical or emotional level, and can be mild to intense, usually starting about 5 to 10 days before menstruation, and it is common for women to have more than one symptom at the same time.
In general, the most common symptoms of PMS are:
- Abdominal pain and swelling;
- Pain or tenderness in the breasts;
- Nausea and vomiting;
- Dizziness and fainting;
- Constipation or diarrhea;
- Headache or migraine;
- Intense craving for sweet foods;
- Insomnia or excessive sleep;
- Increased emotional sensitivity;
- Difficulty concentrating;
- Irritability or nervousness;
- Tension and anxiety;
- Weight gain due to fluid retention.
These symptoms usually disappear within the first few days of menstruation or when menopause begins and, although they are quite uncomfortable, they can be alleviated through regular physical activity and a he althy, balanced diet.
Symptoms of severe PMS
The intensity of PMS symptoms varies from woman to woman, and can be considered mild by some better, but strong by others. In the most severe cases, PMS can be disabling and affect day-to-day activities, causing the woman to lose interest in daily activities, miss work, make decisions based on personal feelings or be aggressive with people close to her.
In these cases, it is important to consult a gynecologist, to start the most appropriate treatment, as it may be a disorder called premenstrual dysphoric disorder, which can even lead to the emergence of anxiety attacks or the development of depression. Understand better what premenstrual dysphoric disorder is and how it is treated.
Why do symptoms arise
PMS symptoms arise due to a gradual drop in estrogen production and an increase in progesterone production, around the 14th day of the cycle, which also influences the amount of serotonin in the brain, a hormone responsible for controlling the mood and the feeling of well being.
Around the 26th day of the cycle, the production of the hormones estrogen and progesterone is practically null, which causes menstruation to happen, and around 3 to 4 days after the start of menstruation, the levels of these hormones start to increase and PMS symptoms disappear.
How to relieve
PMS symptoms can be relieved (or controlled) with a few simple measures, such as:
- Practice regular physical activity, such as walking, swimming or cycling, as they help release serotonin and endorphins in the body, which increase the feeling of well being, relieving anxiety symptoms, nervousness and irritability. In addition, exercises help to reduce tiredness, fight insomnia, excess sleep and difficulty concentrating and improve the functioning of the intestine and blood circulation, fighting constipation and bloating;
- Increase your fluid intake by drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day as it helps to reduce abdominal bloating and constipation, and also keeps the body hydrated in case of diarrhea;
- Increase consumption of foods rich in fiber, such as fruits, vegetables, grains and cereals, for example, to help relieve constipation and increase satiety, which reduces the desire to eat sweet foods;
- Consume foods rich in tryptophan, such as bananas, cheese or cashews, as they help increase the production of serotonin, a neurotransmitter responsible for improving mood and increasing feelings of well-being, which improves symptoms of bad mood, feeling hungry and excessive sleep.
In addition, to reduce PMS symptoms it is important to avoid consuming foods or drinks rich in caffeine, s alt and alcohol, as they increase abdominal swelling and fluid retention. See other foods that should be avoided during PMS.