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Personality disorders are a group of psychological disorders that present a rigid and persistent pattern of behaviors, thoughts and feelings that are different from what is expected in a particular culture.
According to their characteristics, personality disorders are classified into 3 categories:
- Suspicion: paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal disorders;
- Emotional and impulsive: antisocial, borderline, histrionic and narcissistic disorders;
- Anxiety: Avoidant, Dependent, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
Generally, personality disorders lead to a difficulty in perceiving and interacting with situations and people, which can cause problems or limitations in relationships and social contact.
The diagnosis of these disorders must be made by the psychiatrist or psychologist, and the treatment consists of psychotherapy sessions and, in some cases, the use of medication prescribed by the doctor.
10 top personality disorders
The main personality disorders are:
1. Narcissistic Personality
Narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by an overvaluation and grandiose feeling about oneself, in addition to a great need for recognition and devaluation of other people.
Narcissists are self-centered and believe they are special, unique and superior to other people, feel they should be admired and treated in a special way by others, take advantage of other people to achieve their own goals, have lack of empathy and do not understand the feelings and needs of others, often feeling jealous or believing they are the target of envy.See other narcissistic personality traits.
2. Borderline personality
Borderline personality disorder, or borderline syndrome, is characterized by instability in interpersonal relationships and constant feelings of emptiness, sudden mood swings, and marked impulsivity. Understand better what the borderline personality is.
Generally, the person with this type of personality disorder makes a great effort to avoid abandonment, has a pattern of unstable and intense relationships, evaluating people as good in an instant and quickly judging them as bad. In addition, in some cases, it may exhibit self-harming behaviors or suicidal threats.
3. Antisocial personality
Antisocial personality disorder, also known as sociopathy, can appear very early, still in childhood, and is characterized by attitudes of disrespect and violation of other people's rights, disregard and disregard for right and wrong, behaviors dangerous and/or criminal and inability to conform to social norms.
Generally, people with antisocial personality disorder have a great ability to deceive, lie, or deceive others for personal gain or pleasure. In addition, she is impulsive and aggressive and often resorts to physical aggression and disrespect for others, feeling no remorse and showing indifference for having hurt or mistreated someone. Learn how to identify the antisocial personality.
4. Avoidant personality
Avoidant personality disorder, also called “avoidance”, is characterized by excessive shyness and avoidance of social situations and interactions, with feelings of inadequacy and great sensitivity to negative evaluation by other people.
The person with this type of personality disorder usually avoids performing interpersonal activities, due to fear of criticism and rejection or disapproval, is afraid of getting involved in intimate relationships or meeting new people, and feels inferior in relation to the other.
Furthermore, fear of taking personal risks and engaging in new activities is also very common. Understand better the characteristics of this disorder and how it is treated.
5. Obsessive-compulsive personality
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, popularly known as OCD, and also called “anancastic”, is characterized by two types of behavior: obsessions, which are inappropriate or unpleasant thoughts, recurrent and persistent; and compulsions, which are repetitive behaviors or mental acts, such as washing your hands frequently for fear of contaminating yourself with viruses or bacteria, organizing objects or checking locks several times, for example.
In this way, generally, the person with OCD presents an excessive concern with organization, perfectionism, mental and interpersonal control, inflexibility, excessive concern with details, rules, order, organization and/or schedules, which can lead to the emergence of of anxiety and suffering.Here's how to recognize the obsessive-compulsive personality.
6. Paranoid personality
Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by excessive distrust and suspicion of others, in which their intentions are constantly interpreted as malicious. This disorder usually appears in early adulthood and may be a consequence of hereditary factors and childhood experiences.
In this type of personality disorder, the person usually does not trust and suspect other people, often feeling that they are being deceived even if there are no reasons. Therefore, it is common to constantly question the loy alty of friends and colleagues, not trust others and feel that their intentions have a humiliating or threatening character.
In addition, it is common for the paranoid to be considered a colder and more distant person, who does not express affection, also having a tendency to hold grudges, not easily forgive and usually receive the attitudes of others as attacks, reacting with anger, irritation and hostility.Learn more about paranoid personality disorder.
7. Schizoid personality
Schizoid personality disorder is a rarer type of personality disorder, occurring more frequently in men, and is characterized by a tendency of the person to distance themselves from others and avoid social relationships or intimate relationships, such as being part of of a family, for example. Thus, it is common for people with this disorder to be described as distant and indifferent.
Generally, the person with this type of disorder is detached, indifferent and has a tendency to be more introspective and to fantasize about things. In addition, they prefer to engage in solitary activities, avoid intimate and social contact, have no close friends, are indifferent to praise or criticism, and are emotionally cold and distant.
8. Schizotypal personality
Schizotypic personality disorder is characterized by difficulty in establishing intimate relationships, a feeling of discomfort when maintaining contact or social and interpersonal relationships, a feeling that other people can be harmful, in addition to distrust and lack of affection towards others. relation to others.
Generally, people with schizotypal personality disorder have eccentric behavior, speech, and appearance, bizarre beliefs that do not conform to cultural norms in which the person is embedded, and similar, unusual thinking, perceptions, and speech to schizophrenia. See other characteristics and how to identify a person with schizotypal personality.
9. Histrionic personality
Histrionic personality disorder is characterized by low self-esteem, sensitivity to criticism and rejection, and a tendency to depend on the attention and approval of others for one's own well-being.
Generally, the person suffering from this disorder feels bad when they are not the center of attention and interaction with others is often characterized by dramatized and inappropriate behavior, sexually provocative and with rapid changes in the expression of emotions.
Also, uses physical appearance to get attention and uses overly impressionistic speech and exaggerated emotional expressions.However, the person who has a histrionic personality is easily influenced by others or circumstances and considers relationships with people more intimate than they really are. See other features of histrionic personality disorder.
10. Dependent personality
Dependent personality disorder is characterized by a lack of self-confidence, limited view of oneself and others, and an excessive need to be taken care of, leading to submissive behavior and fear of separation and abandonment.
Generally, people with this disorder have a greater difficulty making decisions without the help of others, a need for others to take responsibility for major areas of their life, and difficulty disagreeing with others, afraid of losing support or approval, which makes you more vulnerable to abuse and exploitation.
In addition, the person with a dependent personality finds it difficult to start projects or do things on their own, due to lack of self-confidence, energy or motivation.He still has an extreme need for affection and support, and he feels discomfort or helplessness when he is alone. Therefore, he urgently seeks a new relationship as a source of affection and support, when the current one ends. Better understand dependent personality disorder.