Psychological Disorders 2022

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD): what é, symptoms and treatment

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Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD): what é, symptoms and treatment
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD): what é, symptoms and treatment

Oppositional defiant disorder, also known as ODD, usually occurs during childhood, and is characterized by frequent behaviors of anger, aggression, revenge, defiance, teasing, disobedience, or resentment.

Generally, treatment consists of psychotherapy sessions and parent training so that they can better deal with the child. In addition, if the child has another type of disorder along with ODD, medication can also be prescribed, which must be indicated by a psychiatrist.

Main symptoms

The most common behaviors and symptoms in children with oppositional defiant disorder are:

  • Aggressiveness;
  • Irritability;
  • Disobedience to older people;
  • Agitation and loss of calm;
  • Rules challenge;
  • Annoying other people;
  • Blame other people for one's own mistakes;
  • Being angry,
  • Being resentful and easily upset,
  • Be cruel and vengeful.

Furthermore, children with ODD also have difficulty developing at school, especially when interacting with friends.

Possible causes

There is no specific cause for the onset of the disorder, however, it is possible that it is influenced by several factors, including lack of attention, abuse, or growing up and developing in an environment with aggressive, inconsistent or neglectful behaviors.

How the diagnosis is made

ODD can be diagnosed in children who frequently manifest behaviors towards people other than a sibling, such as:

  • Lose your cool;
  • Is sensitive or easily annoyed;
  • Is angry and resentful;
  • Questions authority figures or, in the case of children and adolescents, adults;
  • Often defies or refuses to obey rules or requests from an authority figure;
  • Deliberately annoys others;
  • Blame others for your mistakes or misbehavior;
  • Has been mean or vengeful at least twice in the last six months.

Please note that oppositional defiant disorder can be more than acting defiantly or throwing a tantrum, which is common in children, as temporary oppositional behavior can be part of normal development of personality.Thus, it is important that parents, guardians and educators are able to differentiate normal oppositional behavior for the development of the child, as it acquires autonomy, from a behavioral disorder, in which behaviors of excessive aggression, cruelty towards people predominate. and animals, destruction of property, lies, tantrums and constant disobedience.

How the treatment is done

Treatment for oppositional defiant disorder can be very diverse and involves training parents to interact more effectively with the child and doing family therapy to support and support the family. Psychotherapy may also be recommended.

In addition, if the child has some other type of psychological disorder, such as ADHD, the doctor may prescribe some types of medication, such as risperidone, quetiapine, carbamazepine or fluoxetine, for example.

Learn more about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

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