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SíMénière: what é syndrome, causes and treatment

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SíMénière: what é syndrome, causes and treatment
SíMénière: what é syndrome, causes and treatment

Ménière's syndrome is a rare disease that affects the inner ear, characterized by frequent episodes of vertigo, hearing loss and tinnitus, which can happen due to excessive accumulation of fluid inside the ear canals.

In most cases, Ménière's syndrome affects only one ear, however it can affect both ears, and it can develop in people of all ages, although it is more common between the ages of 20 and 50.

Although there is no cure, there are treatments for this syndrome, indicated by the otolaryngologist, that can control the disease, such as the use of diuretics, a low-sodium diet and physical therapy, for example.

Symptoms of Ménière's Syndrome

The symptoms of Ménière's syndrome can appear suddenly and can last between minutes or hours and the intensity of the attacks and frequency can vary from one person to another. The main symptoms of Ménière's syndrome are:

  • Vertigo;
  • Dizziness;
  • Loss of balance;
  • Buzz;
  • Decrease or loss of hearing;
  • Sensation of plugged ear.

It is important that the otorhinolaryngologist is consulted as soon as the symptoms indicative of the syndrome appear, so that treatment can be started to relieve symptoms and prevent new crises.

Online Symptom Test

If you think you may have the syndrome, select the symptoms you present in the following test:

  1. 1.Frequent feeling sick or dizzy Yes No
  2. 2.Feeling that everything around you is moving or rotating Yes No
  3. 3.Temporary hearing loss Yes No
  4. 4.Constant ringing in the ear Yes No
  5. 5.Clogged ear feeling Yes No


Make an appointment with a specialist

How the diagnosis is made

The diagnosis of Ménière's syndrome is usually made by the otolaryngologist through the evaluation of symptoms and clinical history. Some of the requirements for making a diagnosis include having 2 episodes of vertigo lasting at least 20 minutes, having impaired hearing proven with a hearing test, and having a constant feeling of ringing in the ear.

Before the definitive diagnosis, the doctor can do several tests of the ears, to ensure that there is no other cause that could be causing the same type of symptoms, such as an infection or perforated eardrum, for example.Find out what other causes of vertigo are and how to differentiate.

Possible causes

The specific cause of Ménière's syndrome is still not well understood, however it is believed to be due to excessive accumulation of fluid inside the ear canals.

This accumulation of fluids can happen due to several factors, such as anatomical alterations of the ear, allergies, virus infections, blows to the head, frequent migraine and exaggerated immune system response.

How the treatment is done

Although there is no cure for Ménière's syndrome, it is possible to resort to several types of treatment to reduce, especially, the sensation of vertigo, and it is important to follow the guidelines of the otolaryngologist.

1. Use of medication

The most commonly used medications to treat Ménière's syndrome should be prescribed by your doctor, and include:

  • Antiemetics, such as Meclizine, Dimenhydrate, Promethazine or Metoclopramide: they are used at the time of the crisis, as they are medications that, in addition to treating nausea, reduce vertigo caused by movement;
  • Tranquilizers, such as Lorazepam or Diazepam: also used during attacks to reduce feelings of dizziness and vertigo;
  • Diuretics, such as Hydrochlorothiazide: they are usually indicated to reduce the frequency and intensity of vertigo attacks, as they work by reducing the accumulation of fluids inside the ear canals, which is a probable cause of the disease;
  • Anti-vertigo drugs such as Betahistine: Used continuously to control and reduce symptoms of vertigo, nausea, tinnitus and hearing loss.

In addition, other classes of medication, such as vasodilators, to improve local circulation, as well as corticosteroids and immunosuppressants, as a way of regulating immune activity in the ear region may also be indicated.

2. Physiotherapy

Physiotherapy is very important for those who suffer from this disease, and is known as vestibular rehabilitation therapy. In this treatment, the physical therapist can recommend exercises that can help reduce symptoms of dizziness and imbalance, improving sensitivity to movement, as well as making safety recommendations for the person to use in times of crisis.

3. Use of medication in the ear

The use of medication in the ear is indicated when other treatment methods have not been effective. Thus, some medications can be administered directly to the tympanic membrane to reduce vertigo symptoms, the main ones being:

  • Antibiotics, such as Gentamicin: it is an antibiotic that is toxic to the ear and that, therefore, decreases the activity of the affected ear in the control of balance, transferring this function only for he althy ear;
  • Corticoids, such as Dexamethasone: is a corticosteroid that reduces ear inflammation, reducing the intensity of attacks.

This type of treatment can only be done in the office of an ENT specialist in the treatment of problems such as Ménière's syndrome.

4. Surgery

Surgery is also only indicated in cases in which other forms of treatment have had no effect on reducing the frequency or intensity of attacks. Some options include:

  • Endolymphatic sac decompression, which relieves vertigo by decreasing fluid production or increasing its absorption;
  • Section of the vestibular nerve, in which the vestibular nerve is cut, solving vertigo problems without harming hearing;
  • Labyrinthectomy, which solves the problems of vertigo but also causes deafness, so it is only used in cases where there is already hearing loss.

The best method is indicated by the otolaryngologist, according to the main symptoms presented by each person, such as hearing loss or dizziness.

5. Natural treatment

The first step to treat Ménière's syndrome is with changes in habits, as they are ways to reduce the number and intensity of crises.

Thus, one of the best natural ways to relieve and prevent the onset of symptoms associated with Ménière's syndrome is to eat a low or no-s alt diet. This happens because the body retains less water, reducing the amount of fluid in the ear that can cause dizziness and nausea.

The diet for Ménière's syndrome consists of:

  • Replace s alt with herbs;
  • Avoid industrialized products;
  • Avoid eating s alty foods such as ham or cheese;
  • Opt for grilled or baked food, to avoid sauces with too much s alt.

In addition, it is indicated to reduce the consumption of alcohol, caffeine and nicotine, as they are irritating substances to the structures of the ear. Stress should also be avoided, as it negatively stimulates the nervous system and can trigger new crises.

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