General Practice 2022

Bacterial sinusitis: what é, symptoms, causes and treatment

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Bacterial sinusitis: what é, symptoms, causes and treatment
Bacterial sinusitis: what é, symptoms, causes and treatment

Bacterial sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinuses, space around the nose, eyes and forehead, which is caused by bacteria, causing symptoms such as bad breath, heaviness and headache and fever. Bacterial sinusitis usually appears after flu, colds or allergic crises, situations that make the nasal mucosa sensitive to the entry and multiplication of bacteria in the sinuses.

The symptoms of bacterial sinusitis last more than 10 days and are similar to viral, allergic or fungal sinusitis. Know the main symptoms of sinusitis and how to differentiate the main types.

Treatment of bacterial sinusitis should be done under the guidance of a physician who may indicate the use of antibiotics and decongestants.In addition, home remedies such as ginger tea and inhalations can complement medical treatment, helping to relieve sinus symptoms. See other home remedies for bacterial sinusitis.

Main symptoms

Symptoms and signs of bacterial sinusitis last for more than 10 days and can last for up to 4 weeks, the main ones being:

  • Headache;
  • Pain or pressure in the sinuses;
  • Fever;
  • Pain when touching the sinuses;
  • Frequent coryza;
  • Sneezing;
  • Dry cough, or with whitish mucus;
  • Itchy eyes;
  • Stuffy nose;
  • Dizziness;
  • Toothache or upper jaw pain;
  • Smell from nose;
  • Bad breath;

In addition, bacterial sinusitis can also cause a decrease or loss of sense of smell, sore throat, weakness and malaise.

Causes of bacterial sinusitis

Bacterial sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinuses caused by the entry and multiplication of bacteria, such as Pneumococcus, Streptococcus, Haemophilus, and Moraxella, and usually occurs after flu, colds or allergic crises, situations that make the nasal mucosa sensitive. entry and multiplication of bacteria in the sinuses.

In addition, other risk factors, such as exposure to tobacco, smoke, deviated septum (cartilage that divides the nose), low temperature, humidity, anxiety and stress, can also contribute to increased mucosal sensitivity of the nose, favoring the appearance of bacterial sinusitis.

Is bacterial sinusitis contagious?

Unlike viral sinusitis, bacterial sinusitis is not contagious and is not transmitted from person to person.

How the diagnosis is made

The diagnosis of bacterial sinusitis should be made by a doctor, who evaluates all signs and symptoms and the person's he alth history.

In addition, the doctor may also order some tests to identify the type of sinusitis, such as X-ray of the face, computed tomography, nasal endoscopy, and bacteriology, an exam done with a sample of nasal secretion to identify the bacteria responsible for sinusitis. Understand more about how sinusitis is diagnosed.

How the treatment is done

Treatment of bacterial sinusitis varies according to age, general he alth status of the person and should only be done under the supervision of a doctor. Treatment is aimed at fighting bacteria, helping to relieve sinus symptoms. Thus, the main treatments indicated for bacterial sinusitis are:

1. Remedies

Antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cephalosporins and cefuroxime may be indicated to fight bacteria and decrease inflammation in people with very strong symptoms or with symptoms of bacterial sinusitis for more than 7 days. Dosage and duration of antibiotic use vary according to age, symptoms and he alth status, and use is generally indicated for 7 days for adults and 10 days for children.

Furthermore, oral antiallergics, or spray, decongestants and analgesics are also indicated to unclog the nose, relieve headaches and reduce the runny nose, for example.

2. Nebulization

Nebulization consists of inhaling steam that may contain saline solution and/or medications and that help humidify the airways, fluidize secretions and clear the airways. Nebulization can be done using an electric nebulizer at home, or done in hospitals and lasts between 15 and 20 minutes, being indicated 2 to 3 times a day.See how to nebulize.

3. Nasal wash

The nasal wash consists of injecting, with a syringe or nasal irrigator, the saline solution at 0.9%, being indicated to hydrate and fluidize the secretions of the nasal sinuses, relieving the discomfort in the region and helping to eliminate the secretions. Learn how to wash your nose.

Care during treatment

Some care that can complement the treatment of bacterial sinusitis, helping to strengthen the immune system, unclog the nostrils and eliminate secretions, are:

  • Drink plenty of liquids, such as water, teas, coconut water and natural fruit juices, improving hydration and fluidizing secretions.
  • Maintain a balanced diet, including the consumption of foods rich in fiber, omega 3, vitamin C and antioxidants, such as berries, citrus fruits, dark green vegetables, herbs and natural seasonings;
  • Steaming, with essential oils such as thyme, eucalyptus or peppermint, which help to fluidify the nostrils, unblocking the nose;
  • Get a good night's sleep,getting 7 to 9 hours a night, which is important for strengthening the immune system, helping to fight sinus bacteria.

In addition, some teas, such as ginger with garlic, thyme with honey and echinacea tea have anti-inflammatory, expectorant and analgesic properties, helping to fight the symptoms of bacterial sinusitis, such as headache, stuffy nose and coryza. Check out other tea options that relieve the symptoms of bacterial sinusitis.

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