Table of contents:
The glucose test in pregnancy is used to identify possible gestational diabetes and should be performed between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy, even when the woman does not show signs and symptoms indicative of diabetes, such as an exaggerated increase in appetite or frequent urge to urinate, for example.
This test is done with a blood draw 1 to 2 hours after ingesting 75 g of a very sweet liquid known as dextrosol, in order to assess how a woman's body handles high glucose levels.
Although the exam is usually performed after the 24th week, it is also possible that it is performed before these weeks, especially if the pregnant woman has risk factors related to diabetes, such as being overweight, over 25 years old, a history of diabetes in the family or having had gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy.
How the exam is done
The test for gestational diabetes, also called the OGTT, is performed between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy following these steps:
- The pregnant woman should fast for about 8 hours;
- The first blood sample is taken with the pregnant woman fasting;
- The woman is given 75 g of Dextrosol, which is a sugary drink, in the laboratory or clinical analysis clinic;
- Next, a blood sample is taken right after drinking the liquid;
- The pregnant woman should rest for about 2 hours;
- Then a new blood collection is performed after 1 hour and after 2 hours of waiting.
After the exam, the woman can eat normally again and wait for the result. If the result is altered and there is suspicion of diabetes, the obstetrician may refer the pregnant woman to a nutritionist to start an adequate diet, in addition to performing regular monitoring to avoid complications for the mother and baby.
Glucose test results in pregnancy
From the blood samples taken, measurements are taken to check blood sugar levels, with normal values considered by the Brazilian Society of Diabetes:
|Time after exam||Ideal Reference Value|
|Fasting||Up to 92 mg/dL|
|1 hour after exam||Up to 180 mg/dL|
|2 hours after the exam||Up to 153 mg/dL|
Based on the results obtained, the doctor diagnoses gestational diabetes when at least one of the values is above the ideal value.
In addition to the OGTT test, which is indicated for all pregnant women, even those who do not have symptoms or risk factors for gestational diabetes, it is possible that the diagnosis is made before week 24 by means of a blood glucose test In fasting.In these cases, it is considered gestational diabetes mellitus when fasting blood glucose is above 126 mg/dL, when blood glucose at any time of the day is greater than 200 mg/dL or when glycated hemoglobin is greater than or equal to 6, 5%. If any of these alterations are verified, the performance of the OGTT is indicated to confirm the diagnosis.