General Practice 2022

Decompensated diabetes: what é, symptoms and what to do

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Decompensated diabetes: what é, symptoms and what to do
Decompensated diabetes: what é, symptoms and what to do

Decompensated or uncontrolled diabetes is a complication of diabetes that occurs when circulating glucose levels remain high.

Decompensated diabetes is a silent condition, so symptoms only appear when blood glucose is already very high, and there may be frequent urge to urinate, excessive thirst, increased appetite and weight loss. In the presence of these signs and symptoms, it is essential that the doctor is consulted so that the most appropriate treatment can be initiated to prevent complications.

It is possible to avoid decompensated diabetes by carrying out the treatment indicated by the doctor, together with a he althy diet rich in fiber and regular physical activity.In addition, it is essential that glucose levels are measured regularly with the aid of a glucometer, so it is possible to monitor glucose levels throughout the day.

Symptoms of decompensated diabetes

Initially there are no signs and symptoms of decompensated diabetes, however, as glucose levels remain elevated over time, it is possible that some symptoms will arise, the main ones being:

  • Frequent urge to urinate;
  • Excessive thirst;
  • Weight loss despite increased appetite;
  • Nausea;
  • Excessive tiredness and sleepiness;
  • Dizziness;
  • Loss of teeth;
  • Change in kidney function;

In addition, decompensated diabetes can increase a person's risk of developing vision problems, which can progress to partial or total blindness, and enter a condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis, in which there is a decrease in blood pH, favoring the occurrence of cerebral edema, coma and, in some cases, death.Learn more about diabetic ketoacidosis.

What to do

In the presence of signs and symptoms indicative of decompensated diabetes, it is important that the person is referred to the hospital for the evaluation of glucose levels and the dosage of glycated hemoglobin, which indicates the average blood glucose during the 3 months prior to blood collection.

In most cases, when the decompensation of the disease is confirmed, the person remains in the hospital for the most appropriate treatment to be initiated to control glucose levels and to be monitored in order to prevent the development of complications.

How to avoid

The best way to prevent decompensated diabetes is to follow the doctor's instructions, which usually indicate the use of antidiabetic drugs, such as Glibenclamide or Metformin, for example, or injection of synthetic insulin.

In addition to the use of medication, it is important that the person follows an adequate diet, which should be recommended by a nutritionist according to the person's clinical characteristics, age, lifestyle and risk of complications.In general, a diet for diabetes should be low in simple carbohydrates and rich in fiber-rich foods. See more details of the diabetes diet.

It is also recommended that physical activity be practiced on a regular basis, so that the sugar circulating in the blood can be used as a source of energy.

It is also essential to measure glucose levels throughout the day with a glucometer, especially when fasting, right after waking up, and after meals, so that it is possible to check for signs of decompensation. Learn how to measure glucose correctly with the glucometer.

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