General Practice 2022

Remédios for type 1 and type 2 diabetes

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Remédios for type 1 and type 2 diabetes
Remédios for type 1 and type 2 diabetes

Treatment for type 1 or type 2 diabetes is done with medications to control blood sugar levels, with the aim of keeping blood glucose as close to normal as possible, preventing possible complications of this disease, such as retinopathy or kidney failure, for example.

To treat type 1 diabetes, daily insulin is required. The treatment of type 2 diabetes is usually done with antidiabetic drugs in tablets, such as metformin, glimepiride and gliclazide, for example, being sufficient in most cases, or the help of insulin may also be necessary. In addition, a diet controlled in sugar and fat and exercise is essential in all cases.

As the most suitable remedy for each person varies according to several factors, which include the type of diabetes, the severity of the disease and age, treatment should always be guided by an endocrinologist or general practitioner. To better understand what differentiates the types of diabetes, see what are the characteristics and differences of the types of diabetes.

Medicines for type 1 diabetes

As in this type of diabetes, the pancreas cannot produce insulin or produces it in minimal amounts, the objective of the treatment is to simulate the natural production of this hormone, that is, at the same times and amounts according to the needs of each person, to prevent blood glucose from rising.

In this way, to simulate the action of the pancreas, it is necessary for the person with type 1 diabetes to use at least two types of insulin, which are:

Types of insulin Generic names How it is used
Rapid-acting insulin Regular, Asparte, Lispro, Glulisine Typically used immediately before meals or shortly after eating to keep glucose levels regulated after eating, preventing glucose from building up in the blood.
Slow insulin NPH, Detemir, Glargina Generally, it is used only 1 to 2 times a day, as its action lasts from 12 to 24 hours, sometimes reaching 30 hours, keeping sugar levels stable throughout the day.

These drugs can be found in any pharmacy and most are also available at the popular pharmacy, with access by SUS, according to the medical prescription.

To facilitate the application and reduce the number of injections, there are also combinations with insulin preparations, which combine 2 or more types of insulin, with fast and slow action.

In addition, one option is the use of an insulin pump, which is a small device that is attached to the body, and can be programmed to release fast or slow insulin, according to each person's needs..

Learn more details about the main types of insulin and how to apply them.

Drugs for type 2 diabetes

The most used drugs for type 2 diabetes are hypoglycemic or oral antidiabetic drugs, which can be taken alone or in combination, in order to control blood sugar levels. Some examples include:

Medication List Therapeutic class How it works Most common side effects
Metformin Biguanidas Decreases glucose production by the liver, improves glucose utilization by the body Nausea or diarrhea

Glibenclamide, Glimepiride, Glipizide, Gliclazide

Sulphonylureas Stimulates and increases insulin production by the pancreas Hypoglycemia or weight gain

Acarbose, Miglitol

Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors Decreases the absorption of glucose from food by the intestine Increased intestinal gas or diarrhea
Rosiglitazone, Pioglitazone Thiazolidinediones Improves the body's use of glucose Increased weight, swelling, or worsening heart failure

Exenatide, Liraglutide

GLP-1 agonists Increases insulin release, decreases glucose, increases satiety and facilitates weight loss Nausea, decreased appetite

Saxagliptin, Sitagliptin, Linagliptin

DPP-4 inhibitors Decreases glucose after meals, increasing insulin production Nausea

Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin, Canagliflozin

SGLT2 Inhibitor Increases the elimination of glucose through the urine and facilitates weight loss Increased risk of urinary tract infection

The most recent drugs, such as exenatide, liraglutide, gliptins and glyphozins, are not yet available through the public network, however, other drugs can be found free of charge in pharmacies.

In cases where glucose is very high, or when pills are no longer working, the doctor may include insulin injections in the treatment. However, to treat type 2 diabetes, in addition to the use of medication, it is essential to control the consumption of sugars, carbohydrates, fat and s alt, in addition to practicing physical exercises regularly according to medical advice. Here's what a diabetes diet should look like.

Diabetes medicine for weight loss?

Diabetes medicines should not be used by people who wish to lose weight but who do not have diabetes, because it is dangerous for their he alth. The drugs used to control blood glucose, in case of diabetes, have the effect of weight loss, because with better control of blood sugar, the person feels less hungry, and it is easier to follow a weight loss diet.

However, the use of hypoglycemic agents should not be done by he althy people, who should instead choose to consume foods, juices and teas that help control blood sugar, in a natural way, such as cinnamon, bark flour passion fruit and ground golden flaxseed, for example.

Home remedies for diabetes

Natural remedies for diabetes are great ways to complement treatment with medications, as they have properties that help reduce blood glucose. Some teas with this function are carqueja, cinnamon or sage teas, for example. Check out the recipes for teas for diabetes.

Another great home remedy is the use of passion fruit peel flour, as it contains pectin, a fiber that acts to reduce blood glucose. In addition, another blood glucose regulator is São Caetano melon, which can be consumed in its natural form or as juice, for example.

In the treatment of diabetes it is important not to consume foods with a large amount of sugar or carbohydrates, such as jellies, cookies or potatoes.Alternatively, foods rich in fiber such as vegetables, apples, flaxseeds, wholemeal bread and natural juices should be consumed. See which fruits are recommended for people with diabetes.

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