General Practice 2022

Type 2 diabetes: what é, symptoms, causes and treatment

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Type 2 diabetes: what é, symptoms, causes and treatment
Type 2 diabetes: what é, symptoms, causes and treatment

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by the body's resistance to insulin and increased blood sugar levels, which generates classic symptoms such as dry mouth, increased urge to urinate, increased urge to drink water and even weight loss for no apparent reason.

Unlike type 1 diabetes, a person is not born with type 2 diabetes, developing the disease due to several years of unhe althy lifestyle habits, especially excessive consumption of carbohydrates in food and a sedentary lifestyle.

Depending on the degree of change in sugar levels, treatment may only involve making some changes in diet and lifestyle, or include the use of medication, such as oral antidiabetic drugs or insulin, which should always be indicated by a physician.Diabetes has no cure, but it is a disease that complications can be avoided with control.

Main symptoms

If you think you may have type 2 diabetes, select what you are feeling and find out your risk of having the disease:

  1. 1.Increased thirst Yes No
  2. 2.Constantly dry mouth Yes No
  3. 3.Frequent urge to urinate Yes No
  4. 4.Frequent fatigue Yes No
  5. 5.Vision is blurred or blurry Yes No
  6. 6.Wounds that heal slowly Yes No
  7. 7.Tingling in the feet or hands Yes No
  8. 8.Frequent infections such as thrush or urinary tract infection Yes No


Make an appointment with a specialist

Sometimes these symptoms can be difficult to identify, so one of the best ways to monitor the possibility of having diabetes is to have regular blood tests to check your blood sugar levels, especially when fasting..

Causes of type 2 diabetes

Although type 2 diabetes is more common than type 1 diabetes, the causes are still not well understood. However, it is known that the development of this type of diabetes is influenced by a set of factors, the main ones being:

  • Overweight;
  • Sedentary lifestyle;
  • Unhe althy food, mainly high in carbohydrates, sugar and fat;
  • Smoking;
  • Accumulation of fat in the abdominal region.

In addition, type 2 diabetes can also occur more easily in people over 45 years of age, who use corticosteroids, who have high blood pressure, women who have polycystic ovary syndrome, and people with a history of from a family member with diabetes.

Thus, due to the presence of a set of factors, it is possible that the pancreas decreases insulin production over time, resulting in higher blood glucose levels and favoring the development of the disease.

Which exams to confirm

The diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus is made through a blood or urine test, which evaluates the glucose level in the body. This test is usually done on an empty stomach and must be performed on 2 different days, in order to compare the results.

Fasting glucose reference values ​​are up to 99 mg/dL in blood. On the other hand, when the person has fasting glucose values ​​between 100 and 125 mg/dL, he is diagnosed with prediabetes and when the person has fasting glucose above 126 mg/dL, he may have diabetes. Learn more about your glucose test results.

How the treatment is done

The first form of treatment for type 2 diabetes is the adoption of a balanced diet with less sugar and other forms of carbohydrates.In addition, it is also important to exercise at least 3 times a week and lose weight for overweight and obese people.

After these guidelines, if the sugar levels are not regularized, the doctor may advise the use of oral antidiabetics, which are pills that help control blood sugar levels.

The use of insulin is the treatment option for people who cannot keep their glucose level under control with oral medication alone or who cannot use antidiabetic drugs due to other he alth problems, such as people who have kidney failure and cannot use metformin, for example.

These people need to keep a daily check of their sugar levels and insulin administration for the rest of their lives in most cases, but can revert to pill-only use if they have good glycemic control.

Watch the video below and learn what types of physical exercises can help fight diabetes:

Possible consequences of type 2 diabetes

When the treatment of diabetes is not started in time, the disease can cause several complications in the body, related to the accumulation of sugar in various types of tissues. Some of the more common ones include:

  • Severe vision changes that can lead to blindness;
  • Poor wound healing that can lead to limb necrosis and amputation;
  • Central nervous system dysfunctions;
  • Blood circulation disorders;
  • Heart complications and coma.

Although these complications are more frequent in people who do not start the treatment indicated by the doctor, they can also happen in people who are taking the treatment but not in the recommended way, which can continue to negatively interfere with glucose levels and amount of insulin produced in the body.

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