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The symptoms of diabetes can vary according to the type of disease, but in general the first signs and symptoms of diabetes are frequent tiredness, hunger, sudden weight loss, a lot of thirst, a lot of desire to go to the bathroom and darkening of folds, such as the armpit and neck, for example.
Type 1 diabetes is related to genetic and immunological factors, and the first symptoms are noticed during childhood and adolescence. Type 2 diabetes, on the other hand, is normally related to the person's habits, and the symptoms are perceived as the amount of glucose increases in the blood and the production of insulin is not enough.
As soon as the first signs and symptoms of diabetes appear, it is recommended that the person goes to the general practitioner, pediatrician or endocrinologist for tests to be carried out in order to diagnose the disease.The best way to diagnose diabetes is through blood tests that assess the amount of circulating sugar, such as fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin and OGTT, for example. Learn more about tests that confirm diabetes.
First symptoms of diabetes
The first signs and symptoms that may appear and be indicative of diabetes are:
- Frequent tiredness, lack of energy to play, too much sleep, laziness;
- The child can eat well, but still start to lose weight suddenly;
- The child may wake up to pee at night or go back to bed wetting;
- Very thirsty, even on the coldest days, but the mouth remains dry;
- Is irritable or unwilling to perform day-to-day activities, in addition to reduced school performance;
- Very hungry;
- Tingling or cramping in limbs;
- Difficulty healing wounds;
- Recurring yeast infections;
- Darkening of the folds, especially neck and armpits.
It is important that diabetes is identified as soon as the first symptoms appear, because it is possible that treatment can be started and complications of the disease, such as difficulty seeing, pain and tingling throughout the body, kidney problems, poor circulation and erectile dysfunction.
It is common for type 2 diabetes to remain silent for 10 to 15 years, during which time fasting glucose may remain normal, for example. Thus, those who have diabetes in the family, are sedentary or are overweight, need to be monitored periodically to assess glucose levels through fasting blood glucose, finger prick and glycated hemoglobin, for example.Know the 10 symptoms of excess blood sugar.
How the diagnosis is made
Diabetes can be diagnosed through some tests, such as:
- Finger prick test: Normal up to 200 mg/dL at any time of day;
- 8-hour fasting glucose blood test: Normal up to 99 mg/dL;
- Glucose tolerance test: Normal up to 140 mg/dL 2 hours after the test and 199 mg/dL up to 4 hours;
- Glycated Hemoglobin: Normal up to 5.7%.
Everyone should have at least 1 of these tests done once a year to see if their blood sugar is high. Anyone, of any age, can have type 2 diabetes, even without cases in the family, but the chances increase when there is a poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle.
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How to treat diabetes
The treatment of diabetes is mainly done through food control, regulating the amount of carbohydrates that the person consumes during the day, which is why it is important to follow up with a nutritionist. In addition, the use of medication may be recommended by the endocrinologist, however this indication is more frequent for adults. In the case of children and adolescents, diabetes can be easily controlled through diet and regular physical exercise.