General Practice 2022

Type 1 diabetes: what é, symptoms and treatment

Table of contents:

Type 1 diabetes: what é, symptoms and treatment
Type 1 diabetes: what é, symptoms and treatment

Type 1 diabetes is a type of diabetes in which the pancreas does not produce insulin, causing the body to be unable to use blood sugar for energy, generating symptoms such as dry mouth, constant thirst and cravings. to urinate frequently.

Type 1 diabetes is normally related to genetic and autoimmune factors, in which the body's own cells attack the cells of the pancreas responsible for producing insulin. Thus, there is not enough insulin production to make the glucose enter the cells, remaining in the bloodstream.

The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is commonly made during childhood, and insulin treatment is immediately started to control symptoms and prevent complications.The use of insulin should be done according to the recommendation of the endocrinologist or pediatrician, and it is also important that there are changes in the person's lifestyle.

Type 1 diabetes symptoms

The symptoms of diabetes 1 arise when the functioning of the pancreas is already severely impaired, with symptoms related to the increase in the amount of glucose circulating in the blood, the main ones being:

  • Sensation of constant thirst;
  • Frequent urge to urinate;
  • Excessive fatigue;
  • Increased appetite;
  • Loss or difficulty gaining weight;
  • Abdominal pain and vomiting;
  • Vision blurred.

In the case of children with type 1 diabetes, in addition to these symptoms, they may also go back to wetting the bed at night or have recurrent infections of the intimate region. Here's how to recognize the early symptoms of diabetes in children.

Differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes

The main difference between type 1 and 2 diabetes is the cause: while type 1 diabetes is due to genetic factors, type 2 diabetes is related to the interaction between lifestyle and hereditary factors, appearing in people who have an inadequate diet, who are obese and who do not perform physical activity.

Furthermore, as type 1 diabetes causes destruction of pancreas cells by genetic alterations, there is no prevention and treatment must be done with daily injections of insulin to regulate blood glucose levels. On the other hand, as the development of type 2 diabetes is more related to lifestyle habits, it is possible to avoid this type of diabetes through a balanced and he althy diet and regular physical activity.

The diagnosis of diabetes is made by means of a blood test that measures the level of sugar in the blood.Usually the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes is made when the person begins to show symptoms of the disease and as it is related to immunological alterations, a blood test can be done to detect the presence of circulating autoantibodies.

Learn other differences between types of diabetes.

How the treatment is done

Treatment is done with the daily use of insulin in the form of injection according to the doctor's guidance. In addition, it is recommended to monitor the glucose concentration before and after meals, being recommended that the glucose concentration before meals be between 70 and 110 mg/dL and after meals less than 180 mg/dL.

Treatment for type 1 diabetes helps to prevent complications such as difficulties in healing, vision problems, poor blood circulation or kidney failure, for example. See more about treatment for type 1 diabetes.

In addition, to complement the treatment of type 1 diabetes, it is important to eat a diet that is free or low in sugar and low in carbohydrates, such as bread, cake, rice, pasta, cookies and some fruits, for example.. In addition, it is recommended to practice physical activities, such as walking, running or swimming for at least 30 minutes 3 to 4 times a week.

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