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The gynecologist is the doctor responsible for taking care of women's intimate he alth, being able to guide, prevent and treat changes in the female reproductive system, such as the vulva, vagina, fallopian tubes, uterus, ovaries and breasts. The gynecologist can also monitor the pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum period, being in this case a specialist in obstetrics.
The gynecologist can also perform tests such as Pap smear or colposcopy, in addition to requesting some imaging tests such as pelvic or transvaginal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging or hysterosalpingography, for example.
The gynecologist should be consulted from the first menstruation, or when the woman presents symptoms of gynecological alterations, such as heavy, absent or delayed menstrual period, pain or burning when urinating, or vaginal discharge, for example.See the main causes of vaginal discharge.
What is the gynecologist for
The gynecologist is the doctor who monitors a woman's reproductive he alth, being able to diagnose and treat diseases such as:
- Vaginal discharge;
- Menstrual irregularities;
- Menstrual cramps;
- Hormonal changes;
- Polycystic ovary syndrome;
- Urinary infection or cystitis;
- Pelvic inflammatory disease;
- Uterine fibroid;
- Breast cancer;
- Cervical cancer;
- Cancer of the vulva or ovaries;
- Genital herpes;
- Bacterial Vaginosis;
- Sexual dysfunctions.
In addition, the gynecologist is also the doctor responsible for detecting and treating sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women, such as genital herpes, HPV, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea or chlamydia, for example. See other types of STIs in women.
The gynecologist may also prescribe medications, contraceptives, insert intrauterine devices such as a copper or Mirena IUD, or perform diagnostic procedures and surgeries.
What does the obstetrician gynecologist do?
The obstetrician-gynecologist is the doctor who guides pregnancy planning and monitors the pregnancy, through prenatal consultations, assessing the baby's development and gestational age, in addition to classifying the risk of pregnancy, evaluating the women's he alth and guide birth planning.
In addition, the obstetrician-gynecologist also performs the delivery and postpartum follow-up, assessing the woman's recovery.
When to make an appointment
It is recommended to consult the gynecologist in the following situations:
- Right after the first period, which can vary between 9 and 15 years of age;
- Performing preventive exams, such as Pap smears, at least once a year, as it helps to identify early changes in the uterus, which when not treated correctly can lead to of cancer. See other preventive gynecological exams;
- Prescription contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy, such as oral contraceptives, contraceptive patch, or placement of intrauterine devices;
- Pregnancy planning, so that exams can be performed and identify causes of difficulty getting pregnant or infertility;
- Suspected pregnancy, so that exams can be performed and the woman's he alth evaluated;
- Monitoring of pregnancy through prenatal consultations;
- Presence of delivery symptoms or miscarriage;
- Monitoring the treatment of sexually transmitted infections.
In addition, you should consult your gynecologist whenever symptoms such as heavy menstrual flow, absence or delay of menstruation, vaginal discharge, pelvic pain, pain during intimate contact, sores in the genital region or pain or burning when urinate, for example.
Main gynecological exams
The main tests that the gynecologist can do or prescribe are:
- Pelvic exam;
- Pap smear;
- Pelvic ultrasound;
- Transvaginal ultrasound;
- Infectious screening;
- Magnetic resonance;
- Breast ultrasound;
- Hormonal dosages;
- Biopsy of the cervix, vagina, ovaries or uterus;
- Blood and urine tests;
- Prenatal exams.
In addition, the gynecologist may perform a curettage as a diagnostic test or to clean the uterus by removing the remains of an incomplete abortion. Learn how curettage is performed.