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The gallbladder polyp is a protrusion of the gallbladder wall that normally does not cause symptoms, however when there are several polyps or when the polyp is very large, some symptoms may be noticed, such as nausea, abdominal pain on the right side and vomiting, for example.
As it causes no symptoms, gallbladder polyp is usually identified during routine exams, such as abdominal ultrasound, or during the treatment of gallstones, for example.
In most cases, the gallbladder polyp does not need treatment, but it should be regularly monitored by the doctor through exams. If the polyp is larger than 10 mm, surgery to remove the polyp or gallbladder may be indicated.
Symptoms of gallbladder polyps
The gallbladder polyp usually does not lead to the appearance of symptoms, being identified only during abdominal ultrasound or during the treatment of cramps or gallstones. However, in some cases, especially when the polyps are large, other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain on the right side and yellow skin may appear.
Types of gallbladder polyps
Gallbladder polyps can be classified into:
- Non-neoplastic or pseudopolyps, which are cholesterol, inflammatory and hyperplastic polyps, being the most common and that do not have malignant potential;
- Neoplastic or true,which can be divided into benign, known as adenoma or adenomatous polyp, and malignant, such as adenocarcinomatosis polyp, which is very rare.
Most gallbladder polyps are benign. However, some early carcinomas of the gallbladder can start as polyps. In addition, there is the possibility that an adenoma can be converted to a polyp adenocarcinomatosis, and therefore it is important to identify the type of polyp.
The causes of the appearance of polyp in the gallbladder are still not well understood, as well as the factors that can increase the risk of polyp development are not known. However, it is believed that changes in fat metabolism may be related to the appearance of this type of polyp.
How the treatment is done
Treatment for gallbladder polyps is indicated in cases where the polyp is larger than 10 mm, as they have a higher risk of becoming cancer. In addition, treatment is also indicated when polyps, regardless of size, are accompanied by gallstones, as it helps to prevent the emergence of new crises.
In these cases, the gastroenterologist may recommend that the patient have surgery to completely remove the gallbladder, called a cholecystectomy, and prevent the lesions from developing into cancer. Understand how gallbladder surgery is performed.
How to eat
In cases where polyps cause abdominal pain or are accompanied by gallstones, it is important to adopt a diet that avoids gallbladder stimulation. This measure will not cause the polyps to decrease in size, but it will keep this organ at rest to prevent pain and discomfort.
To do this, you should have a low-fat diet, avoiding the consumption of foods such as butter, margarine, bacon, sauces, yellow cheeses, sausages, whole milk, whole yogurt, fried foods, frozen foods, fatty fish, such as salmon, trout and tuna, cuts of red meat with visible fat and stuffed biscuits, for example.