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General Practice 2023

Remédios for vômyth and nausea: from farmácia and homemade

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Remédios for vômyth and nausea: from farmácia and homemade
Remédios for vômyth and nausea: from farmácia and homemade

Some drugs for nausea and vomiting, such as metoclopramide, ondansetron or dimenhydrinate, may be prescribed by the doctor to control the intensity and frequency or prevent the onset of symptoms, as most of these drugs act in the center of the vomiting, located in the brain, controlling gastric emptying and reducing the feeling of nausea.

These remedies can be used for travel-related nausea, vomiting caused by cancer treatment, food poisoning or infections, and in some cases can be taken for infant vomiting. See other causes of nausea and vomiting.

The treatment of nausea or vomiting should always be guided by the doctor, according to its cause, with individualized doses and for the duration of treatment established by the doctor.

Pharmaceutical Medicines

Some remedies for nausea or vomiting that may be prescribed by the doctor are:

1. Antihistamines

Antihistamines can help prevent motion sickness or vomiting, as they work by blocking the action of histamine in the brain and decreasing the production of stomach acid, which is responsible for the body's nausea and vomiting response.

Some examples of travel sickness remedies are dimenhydrinate, diphenhydramine or meclizine, which can be taken 30 to 60 minutes before travel and up to every 6 hours during travel. However, they should be used with caution as they can cause drowsiness as a side effect, and care should be taken when driving, for example.

Furthermore, antihistamines such as diphenhydramine or dimenhydrinate can be used in the form of injection directly into a vein, given in hospitals, to prevent nausea and vomiting related to chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer.

2. Gastric emptying accelerators

Gastric emptying accelerators, such as domperidone, metoclopramide or cisapride, increase bowel movements and accelerate gastric emptying, making food stay in the stomach for less time, facilitating digestion and preventing food from getting back into the stomach. the esophagus and, therefore, reduces nausea and prevents vomiting.

These drugs can be used to prevent or treat nausea or vomiting caused by food poisoning, infections, treatment with radiotherapy or chemotherapy, and even to reduce the side effect of drugs used to treat Parkinson's disease such as levodopa or bromocriptine, for example.

Gastric emptying accelerators should be used with medical advice as they should not be used by people at risk of bleeding, obstruction or perforation in the stomach or intestine.

In addition, gastric emptying accelerators can cause side effects such as low blood pressure, agitation, nervousness, drowsiness, diarrhea, dry mouth, urine retention, or even palpitation or cardiac arrhythmia.

3. Serotonin receptor blockers

Serotonin receptor blockers are drugs indicated for the prevention or treatment of nausea or vomiting caused, especially, by chemotherapy, radiotherapy or after surgery.

These drugs work by blocking the effect of serotonin, a type of neurotransmitter that acts on the gastrointestinal system and the brain, causing nausea and vomiting.

Some examples of serotonin receptor blockers are ondansetron, palonosetron, granisetron or dolasetron.

4. Anticholinergics

Anticholinergics are drugs that act by decreasing stomach contractions with an antispasmodic action, which acts by decreasing contractions or spasms of the muscles of the digestive system, reducing the feeling of nausea or preventing vomiting.

The main anticholinergic drug is scopolamine, which can be used for travel sickness or nausea and vomiting caused by surgery.

Anticholinergics should be used with medical advice, as they should not be used by children, pregnant or breastfeeding women, or people with glaucoma. In addition, these medications can cause side effects such as dry mouth, dizziness, a drop in blood pressure, heart palpitations, or urinary retention, for example.

Home remedies options

Some home remedies for nausea or vomiting, such as ginger tea or chamomile tea, for example, have anti-emetic properties that can reduce nausea, as well as aid digestion and lessen irritation of the stomach wall and can be used to complement the treatment indicated by the doctor. Check out other home remedies options for nausea or vomiting and how to prepare.

Remedy for child vomiting

Medication to control vomiting in children should only be used if vomiting is very intense and if the pediatrician prescribes a specific medication, such as promethazine, metoclopramide or ondansetron, as the doses must be calculated by the doctor according to the age and weight of the child, and should not be used by children under 2 years of age.

If the child is vomiting, it is important to drink plenty of liquids such as tea, water or coconut water, for example, to prevent dehydration. The child can also take a homemade serum or oral rehydration s alts, which can be purchased at the pharmacy.

It is also very important to go on a diet for a while, avoiding bulky foods and preferring rice porridge, boiled rice with carrots, white meats such as turkey and chicken or cooked fish.

Remedy for vomiting in pregnancy

Pregnancy vomiting medication should be avoided as they can endanger the development of the baby. However, the obstetrician may prescribe medication, such as a vitamin B6 supplement, in cases where vomiting is frequent, such as in hyperemesis gravidarum, which may compromise the nutritional status of the woman or cause dehydration. Understand better what hyperemesis gravidarum is and how it is treated.

It is important to note that medication for vomiting during pregnancy should only be used if prescribed by the obstetrician.

Generally, some measures should be taken to help reduce nausea and vomiting in pregnancy such as:

  • Avoid large meals;
  • Eat at short intervals every 2 or 3 hours;
  • Do not lie down immediately after eating;
  • Avoid spicy and greasy foods;
  • Avoid strong odors, cigarette smoke or coffee.

Treatment of vomiting may involve taking vitamin supplements, good hydration, and electrolyte replacement. Learn more about how to relieve motion sickness during pregnancy.

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