Table of contents:
Venous thrombosis is the obstruction of blood flow in the veins by a clot, or thrombus, and its treatment should be started as soon as possible to prevent the clot from increasing in size or traveling to the lungs or brain, causing pulmonary embolism or stroke.
Thrombosis is curable, and its treatment is guided by the general practitioner or vascular surgeon after identifying the symptoms and confirming the diagnosis, and can be done with anticoagulant drugs, in milder cases, or with thrombolytics and/or surgery in the most severe cases. To understand more details about what is and what are the symptoms of thrombosis, check out how to identify thrombosis.
In addition, after the acute phase has passed, the doctor may advise the use of elastic compression stockings and the practice of light physical exercise, such as walking or swimming, to facilitate blood circulation and prevent the problem reappears.
Treatment options for thrombosis depend on the symptoms and severity of the case and may include:
1. Anticoagulant Remedies
Anticoagulants, such as Heparin or Warfarin, are the first treatment option for deep vein thrombosis, as they decrease the blood's ability to clot, thinning the clot and preventing new clots from forming in others body locations.
Normally, in the case of thrombosis in the legs or arms, treatment with anticoagulants is done with tablets and lasts about 3 months, and can be continued for longer if the clot is very large, takes time to dilute or if there is any disease that facilitates the formation of clots.
There are several types of anticoagulants, which can be:
- Injectables, such as Heparin, which has a faster action and is made in association with the oral warfarin tablet, until the clotting tests, such as INR and TPAE, evidence that the blood is indeed in the anticoagulation range.After reaching this goal (INR between 2.5 and 3.5), the injectable is stopped, leaving only the oral tablet.
- In tablet, with modern drugs, such as Rivaroxaban, which are capable of replacing Warfarin and do not need to be corrected by the INR. These do not need to be started with injectables. However, care must be taken in the presence of some factors such as kidney disease, age, weight and they still have a high cost.
To better understand how these remedies work, check out the most used anticoagulants and what they are for. In addition, during anticoagulant treatment, the patient should have regular blood tests to assess blood thickness and avoid complications such as bleeding or anemia, for example.
2. Thrombolytic Remedies
Thrombolytics, such as Streptokinase or Alteplase, for example, are used in cases where anticoagulants alone are not able to treat deep vein thrombosis or when the patient develops serious complications, such as extensive pulmonary embolism.
Generally, treatment with thrombolytics lasts about 7 days and, during this time, the patient must stay in the hospital to receive injections directly into the vein and avoid efforts that can cause bleeding.
3. Surgery for thrombosis
Surgery is used in the most severe cases of deep vein thrombosis or when it is not possible to dilute the clot with the use of anticoagulants or thrombolytics.
Surgery for deep vein thrombosis is used to remove the clot from the legs or to place a filter in the inferior vena cava, preventing the clot from passing to the lungs.
Signs of improvement in thrombosis
Signs of improvement in thrombosis appear a few days after starting treatment and include a decrease in redness and pain. It may take a few weeks for leg swelling to subside, and it may be greater at the end of the day.
Signs of worsening thrombosis
Signs of worsening thrombosis are mainly related to the clot moving from the legs to the lungs and may include sudden difficulty breathing, chest pain, dizziness, fainting or coughing up blood.
When the patient shows these signs of worsening, you should immediately go to the hospital or call for medical help, calling 192.
See how to complement the treatment with a home remedy for thrombosis.