General Practice 2022

Brain hemorrhage: symptoms, causes, treatment and consequencesênces

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Brain hemorrhage: symptoms, causes, treatment and consequencesênces
Brain hemorrhage: symptoms, causes, treatment and consequencesênces

Brain hemorrhage is a type of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in which bleeding occurs around or inside the brain, due to a rupture of a blood vessel, usually an artery.

It is a serious event, usually caused by a blow to the head, which can lead the person to a state of deep unconsciousness, in addition to feeling nausea, vomiting, decreased heart rate and loss of balance.

Whenever there is a suspicion of a cerebral hemorrhage, it is very important to call for medical help, to confirm the diagnosis and start treatment as soon as possible, in order to avoid sequelae, such as difficulty walking, talking or eating, for example. example.

Main symptoms

Symptoms of cerebral hemorrhage depend on the size of the bleeding, but usually include:

  • Severe, sudden headache that can last for days;
  • Numbness or tingling in some part of the body;
  • Vomiting;
  • Loss of balance;
  • Trembling in the hands;
  • Decreased heart rate;
  • Generalized weakness;
  • Vision changes, such as seeing everything too dark, having a reduced field of vision or blindness;

In more severe conditions, there may also be sudden epileptic seizures or profound and prolonged loss of consciousness in which the person is unable to respond to stimuli.

How to confirm the diagnosis

The most suitable doctor to confirm the diagnosis of cerebral hemorrhage and indicate the most appropriate treatment is the neurologist, however, as it is a medical emergency, whenever there is a suspicion of cerebral hemorrhage it is important to go to the emergency room quickly -help.

The diagnosis is made by performing imaging tests, such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and angiography, with or without contrast, which allow the assessment of the presence of bleeding or lesions in the brain. The doctor may also request a lumbar puncture, in which a sample of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is taken, which will be evaluated in the laboratory to identify the presence of blood.

Types of cerebral hemorrhage

Brain hemorrhage can be classified according to where it occurs:

1. Intraparenchymal or intracerebral hemorrhage

This type of hemorrhage is more likely to occur in the elderly and arises when bleeding occurs within the brain. It is the most serious type, but also the most common. It usually occurs due to tumors, clotting disorders and malformed vessels.

2. Intraventricular hemorrhage

Intraventricular hemorrhage occurs in the cerebral ventricles, which are cavities in the brain where the production of cerebrospinal fluid occurs.This type of hemorrhage usually occurs in premature newborns, within the first 48 hours after birth, or who have had a complication soon after birth, such as respiratory distress syndrome.

3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage

This hemorrhage is usually due to the rupture of an aneurysm, but it can also be the result of a blow, and is characterized by bleeding in the space between two layers of the meninges, the arachnoid and the pia mater.

The dura mater, arachnoid and pia mater are the constituent layers of the meninges, which are membranes that cover and protect the central nervous system. Subarachnoid hemorrhage usually occurs in people between the ages of 20 and 40.

4. Subdural hemorrhage

Subdural hemorrhage occurs in the space between the dura and arachnoid layers of the meninges and is the most frequent result of trauma.

5. Epidural hemorrhage

This bleeding occurs between the dura mater and the skull and is more common in children and adolescents as a result of a skull fracture.

What causes brain hemorrhage

The main cause of cerebral hemorrhage is head trauma, caused by a strong blow to the head. However, there are other less common conditions that can favor bleeding, such as:

  • Uncontrolled high blood pressure;
  • Excessive and chronic consumption of alcohol;
  • Using drugs such as cocaine or amphetamines;
  • Amyloid angiopathy, which is inflammation of small vessels in the brain;
  • Blood diseases, such as thrombocythemia and hemophilia, which hinder the clotting process;
  • Use of anticoagulants, as they make clotting difficult, which can favor bleeding;
  • Brain tumors.

Another common cause of cerebral hemorrhage is a cerebral aneurysm, which is an enlarged blood vessel in the brain. This dilation causes the vessel walls to become thin and fragile, and can rupture at any time, causing hemorrhage. Learn about the symptoms that help identify a brain aneurysm.

How the treatment is done

Treatment for cerebral hemorrhage should be carried out as soon as possible in the hospital and is usually done with surgery to remove the blood that is accumulating inside the skull, in order to reduce pressure and avoid permanent damage in the brain.

In addition to surgery, treatment with medications to control blood pressure, seizures and possible infections may also be indicated by the doctor. In more severe cases, blood transfusions may still be indicated.

To improve quality of life after hemorrhage and avoid injuries, it is important to see a physical therapist or occupational therapist. See what recovery after a stroke looks like.

Consequences of cerebral hemorrhage

After hemorrhage, some people may have sequelae, such as difficulty speaking, swallowing, walking, carrying out day-to-day activities, or may become paralyzed.

As soon as the first symptoms of cerebral hemorrhage appear, you should immediately go to the doctor so that treatment can be started, as the severity of the sequelae depends on the degree of bleeding.

The best way to avoid the occurrence of cerebral hemorrhage and, consequently, its sequelae, is by performing physical activities and having a he althy and balanced diet, low in fat and s alt.

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