General Practice 2022

Roséinfant ola: symptoms, contagágio and how to treat

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Roséinfant ola: symptoms, contagágio and how to treat
Roséinfant ola: symptoms, contagágio and how to treat

Child roseola, also known as exanthema subitum, is a contagious disease that mainly affects babies and children, from 3 months to 2 years of age, and causes symptoms such as sudden high fever, which can reach 40ºC, decrease of appetite and irritability, which last about 3 to 4 days, followed by small pink spots on the child's skin, mainly on the trunk, neck and arms, which may or may not itch.

This infection is caused by some types of viruses that are from the herpes family, such as human herpes virus types 6 and 7, echovirus 16, adenovirus, among others, which are transmitted through droplets of saliva. Thus, despite not being infected more than once by the same virus, it is possible to acquire roseola more than once, if the child is infected with a different virus than the other times.

Although it causes uncomfortable symptoms, roseola usually has a benign course, without complications, and healing itself. However, the pediatrician can guide a treatment to relieve the child's symptoms, such as antihistamine ointments to relieve itching, or Paracetamol to control fever, for example.

Main symptoms

Child roseola lasts for about 7 days, and symptoms appear in the following order:

  1. Sudden onset of high fever, between 38 to 40ºC, for about 3 to 4 days;
  2. Sudden decrease or disappearance of fever;
  3. Emergence of reddish or pinkish spots on the skin, mainly on the trunk, neck and arms, which last about 2 to 5 days and disappear without flaking or changing the color.

Spots on the skin may or may not be accompanied by itching. Other symptoms that can appear in roseola include loss of appetite, cough, runny nose, red throat, swollen body or diarrhea.

To confirm the diagnosis of infantile roseola, it is very important to undergo an evaluation by the pediatrician, who will evaluate the child's symptoms and, if necessary, request tests that can confirm the disease, as there are several situations that cause fever and red spots on the child's body. Learn about other causes of red spots on baby's skin.

How the transmission happens

Child roseola is transmitted by contact with the saliva of another contaminated child, through talking, kissing, coughing, sneezing or toys contaminated with saliva and can be transmitted even before the skin spots appear. Symptoms usually appear after 5 to 15 days of infection, during which the viruses install and multiply.

This infection is not normally transmitted to adults because most people have defenses against roseola, even if they have never had the disease, but it is possible for an adult to contract roseola if they have the immune system weakened.In addition, it is rare for a pregnant woman to be contaminated with the roseola virus and develop the disease during pregnancy, however, even if she acquires the infection, there are no complications for the fetus.

How the treatment is done

Child roseola has a benign evolution, as it usually evolves to heal naturally. Treatment is guided by the pediatrician, and consists of controlling the symptoms of the disease, and the use of Paracetamol or Dipyrone may be indicated to reduce fever and thus prevent febrile seizures.

In addition to medication, some measures that can help control fever are:

  • Dress the child in light clothes;
  • Avoid blankets and blankets, even in winter;
  • Bath the child only with water and slightly warm temperature;
  • Place a cloth soaked in fresh water on the child's forehead for a few minutes and also under the armpits.

By following these guidelines, the fever should decrease a little without having to resort to medication, but it is necessary to check if the child has a fever several times a day. While the child is sick, it is advised not to attend daycare or be in contact with other children.

Also, another option to help complement the treatment and reduce fever is ash tea, as it has antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and healing properties, helping to relieve the symptoms of roseola. However, it is important that ash tea is recommended by the pediatrician.

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