General Practice 2022

6 causes of sore throat and what to do

6 causes of sore throat and what to do
6 causes of sore throat and what to do

Sore throat is a very common symptom, characterized by a sensation of pain that can be located in the pharynx, larynx or tonsils, and may occur in situations such as flu, cold, infection, allergy, dry air, or exposure to irritants, for example, and which should be treated according to the underlying cause.

In most cases, sore throat is accompanied by other symptoms, which help to make a diagnosis, allowing the most appropriate treatment to be established:

1. Flu and cold

Flu and cold are the most common causes of sore throat, because the main entrance for viruses is the nose, which end up accumulating and multiplying in the lining of the throat, causing pain.Other symptoms that may occur are cough, fever, sneezing and headache and body pain.

What to do: To help relieve symptoms, your doctor may recommend pain relievers and anti-inflammatories for pain and fever, antihistamines for a runny nose and sneezing and cough syrups. In some cases, if a bacterial infection develops, antibiotics may be necessary. Learn how to distinguish flu from a cold.

2. Bacterial infection

Sore throat can also be caused by bacteria, the most common being Streptococcus pyogenes infection, which is a bacteria naturally present in the throat mucosa, without causing disease. However, due to some situation, there may be an imbalance between the species of microorganisms in the region and the consequent proliferation of this type of bacteria, giving rise to an infection. In addition, STIs such as gonorrhea or chlamydia can also cause a sore throat and infection.

What to do: Generally, the treatment consists of the administration of antibiotics, which must be prescribed by the doctor, who may also prescribe painkillers to relieve a sore throat.

3. Gastroesophageal reflux

Gastroesophageal reflux is the return of stomach contents to the esophagus and mouth, which can cause pain and inflammation in the throat, due to the presence of acid that is secreted in the stomach. Learn more about gastroesophageal reflux.

What to do: To prevent a sore throat caused by the reflux of gastric contents, your doctor may recommend taking acid-inhibiting medications, antacids, or stomach protectors. stomach.

4. Dry air and air conditioning

When the air is drier, the lining of the nose and throat tends to lose moisture, and the throat tends to become drier and more irritated.

What to do: The ideal is to avoid air conditioning and exposure to dry environments. In addition, it is advisable to drink plenty of water and apply hydration solutions to the mucous membranes, such as saline solution in the nose.

5. Allergy

Sometimes, when an allergic reaction occurs, the throat may become irritated and, in addition, symptoms such as a runny nose, watery eyes or sneezing, for example, may appear.

What to do: Your doctor may recommend taking antihistamines to relieve allergic symptoms.

6. Cigarette smoke and air pollution

Cigarette smoke and air pollution caused by fires, automobile emissions or industrial activities, for example, are also responsible for causing throat irritation.

What to do: You should avoid closed places with excessive cigarette smoke and prefer to go out to green spaces where the air is less polluted.

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