General Practice 2022

Alimentação do babyê: 0 to 12 months

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Alimentação do babyê: 0 to 12 months
Alimentação do babyê: 0 to 12 months

Baby should be fed only with breast milk or infant formula, up to 6 months of age. However, from the 6th month onwards, milk no longer provides all the nutrients the baby needs to develop and, therefore, the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics recommends introducing foods into the baby's diet.

Thus, the baby should start eating mashed or grated fruit porridge, as well as a main porridge, prepared with vegetables, tubers, legumes and proteins. In addition, when the baby starts complementary feeding, it is important that he also drinks water between meals to avoid dehydration, constipation or kidney overload.

The gradual introduction of foods should be done after evaluation by the pediatrician, or nutritionist, who will adjust the types and amounts of food for each baby. Know when to start introducing foods into your baby's diet.

Baby feeding should be done according to age:

1. From 0 to 6 months

Baby feeding in the first 6 months should be done only with breast milk or infant formula.

Breast milk provides all the nutrients the baby needs and should be offered on demand, that is, whenever the baby wants it. The Brazilian Society of Pediatrics recommends that, when possible, breast milk is offered to children up to 2 years of age or older. In addition, exclusive breast milk up to 6 months of age provides the amount of water the baby needs.

Infant formula also offers the necessary nutrients for the baby and is indicated when the mother is unable to breastfeed or when she is undergoing treatment where breastfeeding is not indicated. The baby who is fed infant formula should drink 700 ml of water (distributed between infant formula water and plain water) throughout the day to avoid constipation and overload the kidneys.See the amount of water according to the age of the baby.

2. From 6 months

From 6 months onwards, foods are gradually introduced into the baby's diet that will complement breast milk or infant formula. At this stage, the baby should have a total of 3 meals a day, with 1 fruit porridge in the morning and afternoon snacks, and 1 main porridge at lunch or dinner. Understand better how to feed a baby at 6 months.

Fruits, vegetables, cereals and porridge proteins should be offered separately on the plate, so that the baby knows the different flavors and textures of food, and the porridge should be prepared as in the following examples:

  • Fruit porridge: fresh fruits should be preferred as they are a source of vitamins, fiber and minerals and should be scraped or mashed, such as bananas, avocados, mangoes, oranges, pear and apple;
  • Main porridge: this porridge should be prepared with 1 portion of cereal, such as rice and pasta, or root vegetables, such as cassava and potato + 1 portion of vegetables, such as pumpkin, broccoli and carrots + 1 serving of legumes, such as beans + 1 serving of protein, such as meat or fish.It must be mashed with a fork and can be seasoned with fresh herbs, without adding s alt.

It is important that the baby eats the food separately on the plate, as this also makes it easier for parents to identify whether any food causes an allergy or intolerance.

At this stage, the baby's main food is still breast milk or infant formula, which should be offered with fruit porridge and at other times throughout the day.

Water intake: as the baby starts to eat some foods, increasing fiber, protein and sodium intake, he should also ingest 700 ml of water a day, distributed between water from breast milk or infant formula, water used in preparations such as soups and stews, and plain water.

3. From 7 to 8 months

From 7 to 8 months, the baby starts eating one more main porridge per day, with 1 main porridge at lunch and another at dinner, in addition to 1 fruit porridge in the morning and afternoon snacks.Porridge should be prepared with fresh fruits and vegetables, cereals or tubers, protein and pulses. Learn more about how to feed your baby from 7 months onwards.

Breast milk, which should be offered according to the child's wishes, or infant formula, following the pediatrician's recommendation, are still the main meals of the baby at this age and should be offered with fruit porridge and other meals of the day.

Water intake: the need for water increases a little from 7 months onwards, and intake of 800ml per day is recommended. It is important to consider the water from breast milk, or the water used in infant formula, the water used in the preparation of soups and stews and the pure water, which should be given to the baby throughout the day and in small portions.

4. From 9 to 11 months

From 9 to 11 months the baby chews better and can start eating chopped food and shredded meats.At this stage, the baby continues to eat the main porridge for lunch and dinner, and the fresh fruit porridge for morning and afternoon snacks, along with breast milk or infant formula. See some baby food recipes for 9 months old.

Breast milk or infant formula is still needed by the baby at this stage, but the food starts to provide more nutrients and energy that the baby needs. Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the signs of hunger, when the child is happy or points to food, and satiety, when the child eats more slowly, pushes the food or takes a long time to swallow, for example.

Water intake: from 9 to 11 months, the recommended water intake is maintained at around 800 ml per day, taking into account the water in breast milk or formula children, pure water and water used in preparations such as soups and stews.

5. From 12 months

From 12 months onwards, the baby starts to grow some teeth and he can already hold the spoon. With this, the baby can start eating the same foods as the rest of the family, but it is important that they still have the supervision of their parents or guardians.

In the baby's breakfast, another portion of fruit should be added. As a result, he starts eating fresh fruit porridge for breakfast, morning and afternoon snacks along with breast milk, cow's milk or infant formula, and the main porridge for lunch and dinner.

For babies from 12 months who are not breastfed, whole cow's milk is recommended as it is a drink rich in calcium, an important mineral for the formation of bones and teeth. However, excessive consumption of milk can hinder the absorption of iron, an important mineral to prevent anemia and, therefore, the baby should consume a maximum of 600 ml of this drink per day.

However, in situations such as intolerances and allergies, for example, cow's milk is not indicated. Therefore, before offering this type of milk to the baby, it is recommended to talk to the pediatrician.

Water intake: It is recommended to give around 1300 ml of water a day from 12 months onwards, including pure water (which must be given in a glass or cup and between meals), water from breast milk or infant formula, and water used in preparations such as soups.

What the baby should not eat

According to the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics, the baby should not eat processed foods, such as chocolates, sausages, ice cream, cookies, boxed or powdered juices, soft drinks or ready-made sauces. In addition, it is also not recommended to use s alt or sugar in the preparation of meals for children up to 2 years of age. See more examples of foods your baby can't eat until 2 years old.

At this stage, the baby's palate is developing and he can get used to the excess fat, sweet or s alty taste of these types of food, contributing to a bad eating habit, which can cause obesity or other problems of he alth in childhood.

Advantages of breast milk

Breast milk is a complete food that has all the nutrients necessary for the he althy growth and development of the baby, as well as being easy to digest and providing antibodies that strengthen the immune system.For these reasons, breast milk is recommended exclusively for up to 6 months, and can be maintained until 2 years of age or more, even if the child has already eaten all meals.

In addition to the benefits for the baby, breastfeeding also brings benefits to the mother, such as strengthening the relationship with the baby, helping with weight loss, reducing bleeding after childbirth and preventing breast, ovarian and endometrial cancer.

When to use infant formula

The use of infant formula is only recommended by pediatricians when the mother cannot breastfeed or when breast-feeding is contraindicated, such as in the case of contagious diseases or the use of certain medications.

To feed the baby with infant formula, the pediatrician's recommendations on the type and amount of formula suitable for each baby should be followed. It is also important to remember that children who use infant formula need to drink water to avoid constipation and overloading the kidneys.

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