Heart Diseases 2022

9 common cardiovascular diseases: symptoms, causes and treatment

Table of contents:

9 common cardiovascular diseases: symptoms, causes and treatment
9 common cardiovascular diseases: symptoms, causes and treatment
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Cardiovascular diseases are a set of problems that affect the heart and blood vessels, and that arise with age, usually related to unhe althy lifestyle habits, such as a high-fat diet and lack of physical activity, for example. However, cardiovascular diseases can also be diagnosed at birth, as is the case with congenital heart diseases.

In addition, cardiovascular diseases can occur as a result of infections by viruses, fungi or bacteria, which cause inflammation of the heart, as in the case of endocarditis and myocarditis.

It is important that cardiovascular diseases are properly treated because, in addition to causing uncomfortable symptoms, such as shortness of breath, chest pain or swelling in the body, they are also the leading cause of death in the world.Check out 11 symptoms that could indicate heart problems.

1. Hypertension

Hypertension is characterized by increased blood pressure, usually above 130 x 80 mmHg, which can influence the proper functioning of the heart. This situation can happen due to aging, lack of exercise, weight gain or excessive consumption of s alt, for example, however hypertension can also happen as a result of other conditions, such as diabetes or kidney disease, for example.

Increased blood pressure normally does not cause symptoms, but in some cases it can be noticed through some of them, such as dizziness, headache, changes in vision and chest pain, for example. Learn how to identify hypertension.

Treatment: it is recommended to follow-up hypertension with a general practitioner or cardiologist, as medication may be required, in addition to a low-s alt diet.

It is also important to practice physical activities, avoid smoking, drink at least 2 liters of water a day and check your blood pressure regularly. If the pressure remains high despite the recommended treatment, it is recommended to return to the cardiologist so that a new evaluation can be carried out and the treatment modified.

2. Acute myocardial infarction

Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), or heart attack, happens due to the interruption of blood flow to the heart, most often due to the accumulation of fat in the arteries of the heart. The most characteristic symptom of a heart attack is very intense pain in the chest that can radiate to the arm, but there can also be dizziness, cold sweats and malaise.

Treatment: in cases of suspected infarction, it is recommended to seek medical help as soon as possible so that treatment with drugs that prevent clots and promote blood flow can be started blood.In some cases, emergency surgery may even be necessary. Understand how the treatment for infarction is done.

After emergency treatment, it is important to follow medical advice, take the prescribed medication regularly and adopt he althy habits, such as regular physical activity and a diet low in fatty foods and rich in fruits and vegetables.

3. Heart failure

Heart failure is more common in people who have high blood pressure, which can lead to weakening of the heart muscle and, consequently, difficulty pumping blood to the body. The main symptoms associated with heart failure are progressive tiredness, swelling in the legs and feet, dry cough at night and shortness of breath.

Treatment: should be indicated by the cardiologist, but it is usually done with the use of drugs to lower pressure, such as Enalapril and Lisinopril, for example, associated with diuretics, like Furosemide.In addition, regular exercise is recommended, when properly indicated by your cardiologist, and reducing s alt consumption, controlling pressure and, consequently, avoiding heart decompensation.

4. Congenital heart disease

Congenital heart diseases are those in which the heart undergoes changes during the development process during pregnancy, which can result in changes in heart function that are already born with the baby. These heart diseases can be identified even in the mother's uterus, through ultrasound and echocardiogram and can be mild or severe. Know the main types of congenital heart disease.

Treatment: varies according to severity, and in the case of severe congenital heart diseases, surgery or heart transplantation is recommended in the first year of life. In the case of mild heart diseases, treatment is done with the aim of relieving symptoms, and the cardiologist may indicate the use of diuretic drugs and beta-blockers, for example, to regulate heart rate.

5. Endocarditis

Endocarditis is inflammation of the tissue lining the heart, usually caused by an infection, usually by fungi or bacteria. Although infection is the main cause of endocarditis, this disease can also occur as a consequence of other diseases, such as cancer, rheumatic fever or autoimmune diseases, for example.

Symptoms of endocarditis appear over time, and there may be persistent fever, excessive sweating, pale skin, muscle pain, persistent cough and shortness of breath. In more severe cases, the presence of blood in the urine and weight loss can still be noticed.

Treatment: The main form of treatment for endocarditis is the use of antibiotics or antifungals to fight the microorganism responsible for the disease, and the treatment should be done according to the cardiologist's orientation. In addition, replacement of the affected valve may be necessary.

6. Cardiac arrhythmias

Cardiac arrhythmia corresponds to the change in heartbeat, which can make the heartbeat faster or slower, resulting in symptoms such as tiredness, paleness, chest pain, cold sweat and shortness of breath, for example.

Treatment: varies according to the symptoms presented, but aims to regulate the heartbeat. Thus, the use of medications, such as Propafenone or Sotalol, may be indicated, for example, defibrillation, pacemaker implantation or ablation surgery. Understand how treatment for cardiac arrhythmia is done.

It is also important to avoid the consumption of alcohol, drugs and caffeinated beverages, for example, as they can alter the heart rate, in addition to practicing regular physical activities and having a balanced diet.

In our podcast, Dr. Ricardo Alckmin, president of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology, clarifies the main doubts about cardiac arrhythmia:

7. Angina

Angina corresponds to the feeling of heaviness, pain or tightness in the chest and usually happens when there is a decrease in blood flow to the heart, and which is more common in people over 50, who have high blood pressure, diabetes decompensated or who have unhe althy lifestyle habits, resulting in the interruption of blood flow due to the accumulation of fat in the vessels. Know the main types of angina.

Treatment: should be guided by the cardiologist according to the type of angina, and rest or medication may be recommended to control symptoms, improve blood flow, regulate blood pressure and prevent clot formation.

8. Myocarditis

Myocarditis is inflammation of the heart muscle that can happen due to infections in the body, it can happen during a virus infection or when there is an advanced infection with fungi or bacteria.This inflammation can lead to several symptoms in more severe cases, such as chest pain, irregular heartbeat, excessive tiredness, shortness of breath and swelling in the legs, for example.

Treatment: Myocarditis usually resolves when the infection is cured through the use of antibiotics, antifungals or antivirals, however if myocarditis symptoms remain even after treatment infection, it is important to consult the cardiologist to start a more specific treatment, and the use of drugs to reduce pressure, reduce swelling and control heart rate may be recommended.

9. Valvular heart disease

Valvular heart disease, also called heart valve disease, appears more often in men over 65 years of age and women over 75 years of age and occurs due to the accumulation of calcium in the heart valves, hindering blood flow due to its hardening.

In some cases, symptoms of valvular heart disease may take time to appear, however some symptoms that may indicate heart valve problems are chest pain, heart murmur, excessive tiredness, shortness of breath and swelling in the legs and feet, for example.

Treatment: is performed according to the valve that was affected and the degree of impairment, and the use of diuretic, antiarrhythmic drugs or even replacement may be indicated. of the valve through surgery.

How to prevent cardiovascular disease

Some tips that help prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases are:

  • Stop smoking;
  • Control blood pressure, sugar level and the amount of fat in the blood;
  • Having a he althy diet, avoiding fats and eating more vegetables, fruits and cereals;
  • Practice regular physical exercise, at least 30-60 minutes, 3-5 times a week;
  • Avoid consumption of alcoholic beverages;

Furthermore, for people who are overweight, it is recommended to lose weight, as it is proven that the accumulation of fat is very harmful to cardiovascular he alth. Check out the nutritionist's guidelines on how to eat he althy to lose weight.

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