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Infectious Diseases 2023

15 diseasesças caused by vírus: symptoms and treatment

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15 diseasesças caused by vírus: symptoms and treatment
15 diseasesças caused by vírus: symptoms and treatment
Anonim

Viruses are small infectious agents classified as obligate intracellular parasites, because in order to cause disease they need to be inside the cell. Diseases caused by viruses are popularly known as viruses and can affect people of all ages.

Viruses are widely distributed in the environment, in addition to being part of the body's microbiome, so they can be transmitted through the inhalation of particles that are suspended in the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes or talks, through consumption of contaminated water or food, through contact with surfaces infected by viruses or sharing objects, through unprotected sexual intercourse or through mosquito bites, for example.

It is important that the disease caused by a virus is correctly identified, so that it is possible for the doctor to indicate the most appropriate treatment, which may involve supportive measures, such as rest, fluid intake and light food, or use of antiviral medicines in pill or ointment form, for example.

Main viral diseases

Some of the main diseases caused by viruses are:

1. COVID-19

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which can be transmitted from person to person through the inhalation of droplets of respiratory secretions that can be suspended in the air when the person contaminated by this virus coughs or sneezes.

Since COVID-19 is a highly infectious disease that can lead to death, especially in older people with a more compromised immune system and when support measures are not initiated quickly, it is important that they are Measures are taken to help prevent infection and the development of serious forms of the disease, such as the use of a mask, social distancing, use of alcohol gel, frequent hand hygiene and vaccinations.Learn how to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Main symptoms: the initial symptoms of COVID-19 are similar to the flu, in which the person may have sneezing, runny nose, cough, fever, general malaise, diarrhea and headache. In more severe cases, there may also be difficulty breathing, chest pain, and mental confusion. Take our online symptom test to find out your risk of having COVID-19.

How the treatment is done: the treatment for COVID-19 should be done according to the symptoms presented by the person, being indicated that, regardless of the intensity of the symptoms, the person remains in isolation. In milder cases, it is only recommended that the person rest and have a light and easily digestible diet, in addition to consuming plenty of fluids.

In the most serious cases, it is important that the person is taken to the hospital so that tests are carried out to identify oxygenation and the degree of impairment of the lungs, and oxygen therapy and the use of specific medications may be indicated.

How to prevent: to prevent infection with SARS-CoV-2, it is important to use masks, sanitize and disinfect your hands regularly, avoid staying too long in closed places and have contact with people confirmed or suspected of having COVID-19. In addition, it is also important to take the vaccine against COVID-19, because in addition to protecting against severe cases of the disease, it can reduce the rate of transmission of the disease.

2. Flu

Influenza is the most common virus, being mainly caused by the Influenza virus. Influenza is more common during winter, because during this period it is common for people to stay longer in a closed environment, with little air circulation and with large numbers of people, so there is a greater risk of transmission of respiratory illnesses, including the flu.

Main symptoms: the most frequent symptoms of flu are fever, chills, runny nose, sneezing, sore throat, muscle pain, excessive tiredness and loss of appetite.Symptoms usually appear suddenly and can last up to 7 days. Here's how to tell if it's the flu.

How the treatment is done: the treatment for the flu aims to promote the relief of the symptoms, being normally indicated that the person remains at rest, drink plenty of water and have a light diet, in addition to the use of anti-inflammatory or analgesic medications.

How to prevent: in case of flu, it is important to avoid staying indoors and with little air circulation for a long time, and it is also recommended to avoid contact with people who have the flu. In addition, it is important to adopt measures that help to increase immunity, such as increasing consumption of foods rich in vitamin C and regular physical activity, for example.

Another way to prevent the flu is through vaccination, which is mainly indicated for children, the elderly and he alth professionals. See more details about the flu vaccine.

3. AIDS

AIDS, also known as Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Syndrome, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the HIV virus that can be transmitted from one person to another through unprotected sexual intercourse.

It is possible that the person is a carrier of the HIV virus and does not develop the disease, however, in some cases, the virus manages to multiply in the body, directly interfering with the functioning of the immune system, favoring the development of AIDS and serious complications associated with the disease. Learn more about AIDS and HIV.

Main symptoms: AIDS symptoms may take up to 10 years after HIV infection to appear, and there may be persistent fever, muscle and joint pain, appearance of spots and red spots on the skin, rapid weight loss, infection that does not improve even with proper treatment.

How the treatment is done: AIDS treatment is done with a cocktail of drugs that aims to decrease the viral replication rate and improve the functioning of the immune system, should be used according to the doctor's advice.

How to prevent: AIDS prevention is done through the use of condoms in all sexual relations, in addition to avoiding sharing syringes and needles and contact with blood and secretions of other people, being recommended the use of gloves in these situations.

If exposure to the HIV virus is suspected, Post-Exposure Prophylaxis should be initiated, which aims to prevent viral multiplication and the development of disease. Here's what to do if you suspect HIV.

4. Infantile paralysis

Infantile paralysis, also known as polio, is a disease caused by the poliovirus.This virus is naturally present in the intestine and, therefore, transmission can occur through contact with contaminated objects, feces, food or water or through contact with secretions from an infected person.

However, contact with the virus does not necessarily lead to the development of the disease, especially in people with an intact immune system and/or who have been vaccinated against this disease, whose first dose is indicated at 2 months of age.

Main symptoms: the initial symptoms of poliomyelitis are similar to those of the flu, in which the person may experience headache, fever and excessive tiredness, disappearing after 5 days. However, in some cases, especially in cases where the person has a weakened immune system, the virus can remain in the body and lead to more serious symptoms such as paralysis of one or both legs, muscle atrophy, difficulty speaking. and/or swallowing and muscle spasms, for example.

How the treatment is done: there is no specific treatment for infantile paralysis, however physiotherapy is usually indicated to stimulate and favor the development of atrophied muscles, in addition to to improve posture.

How to prevent: The prevention of poliomyelitis is done through vaccination, which is recommended from 2 months of age, in 3 doses and 2 booster doses. See more about the polio vaccine.

5. Dengue, zika and chikungunya

Dengue, zika and chikungunya are diseases caused by the same vector, the Aedes aegypti mosquito, however they are caused by different viruses and can lead to the development of different symptoms.

Key symptoms: the symptoms of dengue, zika and chikungunya can be similar. In cases of dengue, symptoms can last between 2 to 7 days and there may be fever, body pain, headache, red spots on the skin and mild itching.On the other hand, in the case of Zika, in addition to the symptoms of dengue, there is also redness in the eyes and pain around the eyes, in addition to the pain in the joint being more intense.

In the case of chikungunya, the symptoms are more prolonged, lasting 15 days, and in addition to the symptoms of dengue and zika, there may be general malaise, loss of appetite and, in some cases, neurological changes. See how to differentiate between dengue, zika and chikungunya.

How the treatment is done: the treatment for dengue, zika and chikungunya must be recommended by the doctor and normally aims to relieve the symptoms of the disease, and the use may be indicated of some medications. In addition, it is recommended that the person remain at rest, drink plenty of fluids and have a light diet.

How to prevent: the prevention of dengue, zika and chikungunya involves measures that help control the development of the Aedes aegypti mosquito, which involves eliminating sources of standing water, apply larvicide where mosquitoes and standing water are most likely and use repellent.Check out other tips on how to prevent dengue, zika and chikungunya.

6. Hepatitis

Hepatitis is a disease caused by the hepatitis virus characterized by inflammation of the liver. There are several types of hepatitis that vary according to the responsible agent and mode of transmission, in some cases. The main types of hepatitis are A, B and C.

Main symptoms: Hepatitis symptoms may appear a few days after contact with the virus, and there may be headache, general feeling of discomfort, abdominal swelling, nausea, vomiting, yellowing of the skin and eyes, pale stools and dark urine. It is important to note that the onset of symptoms, duration and intensity may vary according to the virus responsible for the inflammation of the liver. Learn more about hepatitis.

How the treatment is done: the treatment for hepatitis should be guided by the infectologist or hepatologist according to the signs and symptoms presented by the person and the virus.It is usually indicated that the person remains at rest and has a light diet, and in some cases the use of medicines, such as interferon, lamivudine and adefovir, for example, may be indicated. Check treatment details for each type of hepatitis.

How to prevent: The way to prevent hepatitis may vary according to the related virus and transmission method. In general, it is recommended to use condoms in all sexual relations, avoid sharing syringes and needles, avoid sharing personal objects, such as pliers, for example, wash your hands well and sanitize food well before consuming it.

7. Herpes

Herpes is a disease caused by the Herpes simplex virus, which, depending on the route of transmission, can lead to the appearance of symptoms in the mouth, eye or genital region, in which case it is classified as a sexually transmitted infection.

Main symptoms: The main symptom of herpes is the appearance of blisters or sores with a reddish border that appear in the genital region or on the lips, for example.In the case of ocular herpes, the symptoms can be similar to those of conjunctivitis, there may be greater sensitivity to light, redness and irritation in the eye, blisters or sores near the eye and blurred vision, for example. See the symptoms of cold sores, genitals and eyes.

How the treatment is done: the treatment for herpes should be guided by the doctor, and the use of antiviral ointments or pills, such as acyclovir and valaciclovir, with the aim of decreasing the rate of viral replication and alleviating and preventing the onset of symptoms.

How to prevent: to prevent herpes virus infection, it is important to avoid having sex without a condom, avoid sharing personal items and objects that may have been in contact with herpes sores.

8. HPV

HPV is a sexually transmitted infection caused by HPV, also known as Human Papillomavirus, which can be transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse.It is important that HPV infection is identified in the early stages, so that it is possible to start treatment with the objective of reducing the risk of developing cervical cancer, in the case of women.

Main symptoms: The main symptom of HPV infection is the appearance of warts in the genital region, which can appear on the vulva and on the labia minora and majora, in the case of women, and in the body of the penis, scrotum and anus, in the case of men. In addition, in some cases, local redness, itching and burning in the genital region may be observed.

How the treatment is done: the treatment aims to prevent and treat the symptoms of HPV and reduce the chance of transmission, and the doctor may indicate the use of medicines in ointment or performing procedures to remove the warts, such as cryotherapy, laser treatment or surgery. Understand how HPV treatment is done.

How to prevent: HPV prevention is done through vaccination, which is given in 2 to 3 doses, is recommended from the age of 9 and is available at SUS. Learn more about the HPV vaccine.

9. Yellow fever

Yellow fever is a disease caused by the Flavivirus genus, which can be transmitted to people through the bite of an infected Haemagogus Sabethes or Aedes aegypti mosquito.

Main symptoms: yellow fever symptoms can appear up to 6 days after the bite of the infected mosquito, and there may be a severe headache, fever, chills, greater sensitivity to light, muscle pain and increased heart rate. In addition, in some cases, more severe forms of the disease may develop, in which there may be yellowish skin and eyes, bloody vomiting and severe abdominal pain, for example.

How the treatment is done: the treatment for yellow fever should be guided by the infectious disease specialist, who usually recommends rest, ingestion of plenty of fluids during the day and light food.In addition, medications may be indicated to help relieve symptoms, as there is no medication to fight the yellow fever virus. See yellow fever treatment details.

How to prevent: to prevent yellow fever, it is recommended to apply repellent on the arms and legs, mainly, put mosquito nets and screens on the windows and doors of the house and wear long clothes at night and during periods of disease outbreak.

10. Chickenpox

Chickenpox, also called chickenpox, is an infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus, which is highly contagious. This disease is more common in children who have not had the vaccine or who have not completed the vaccination schedule.

Main symptoms: The most characteristic symptoms of chickenpox is the appearance of red balls all over the body, which may contain liquid and are very itchy. In addition, there may be fever, tiredness, general malaise and lack of appetite.

How the treatment is done: the treatment for chickenpox aims to relieve the symptoms, and it is recommended that contact with other people is avoided, as the liquid present in the blisters is highly contagious. In addition, the doctor may indicate the use of antiallergic medication to relieve itching. Find out how to treat chickenpox.

How to prevent: The main form of prevention of chickenpox is through vaccination, whose first dose is indicated at 12 months and the second at 15 months. It is also important to avoid close contact with people with chickenpox, keep your hands clean, avoid staying too long indoors, and not touch chickenpox sores.

11. Mumps

Mumps, also known as infectious parotitis or, popularly, mumps, is an infectious disease caused by the virus of the Paramyxoviridae family, which can be transmitted through the inhalation of droplets that are suspended in the air when the infected person coughs. or speak, for example.

When infecting a person, this virus settles in the salivary glands, leading to the appearance of symptoms. Although it is more common in children, mumps can also affect adults, especially those who have not been vaccinated.

Main symptoms: the main symptom of mumps is swelling in the face, which usually happens between the chin and the ear, since it is in this region that the parotid gland is located. In addition, there may be headache, loss of appetite and pain when swallowing or opening the mouth, for example. Know other symptoms of mumps.

How the treatment is done: the treatment for mumps is done with the aim of promoting the relief of symptoms, and the doctor may recommend the use of analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, which mainly help to reduce swelling on the face, in addition to rest and softer and more pasty food.

How to prevent: to prevent mumps it is important that the vaccine is taken, which is indicated in two doses, the first being recommended at 12 months of age.In addition, it is also important to disinfect objects that have come into contact with respiratory secretions, in addition to avoiding contact with the infected person.

12. Smallpox

Smallpox is an infectious disease caused by a virus of the genus Orthopoxvirus, which can be transmitted from person to person through contact or inhalation of respiratory droplets that can become suspended in the air when the infected person coughs, speaks or sneezes.

Main symptoms: The main sign and symptoms of smallpox is the appearance of blisters on the skin, which can appear between 10 and 12 days after contact with the virus. In addition to blisters on the skin, it is common for the person to feel pain in the body, have a high fever and muscle pain. Learn about other smallpox symptoms.

How the treatment is done: the treatment for smallpox aims to relieve symptoms and prevent the occurrence of secondary bacterial infections, and the doctor may recommend the use of antibiotics and medicines to relieve headache and muscle pain.In addition, some antivirals have been approved for use in smallpox, such as Tecovirimat and Brincidofovir, as they have activity against the smallpox virus.

How to prevent: despite being considered eradicated by the World He alth Organization, it is possible to prevent smallpox virus infection through vaccination, which is made available to people who have been confirmed with smallpox, in case of bioterrorism or in regions where cases of infection have been reported. Also, to prevent infection, it is important to avoid close contact with infected people.

13. Monkeypox

Monkeypox is an infection caused by the monkeypox virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus, and which can be transmitted from animals to people through contact with secretions or blood from infected animals or through consumption of meat undercooked from infected animals. In addition, it can be transmitted from person to person through very close and prolonged contact with infected people, however this route of transmission appears to be less frequent.

Main symptoms: The symptoms of monkeypox are similar to those of smallpox, with blisters and sores on the skin, chills, muscle pain, headache and fever. See more about monkeypox symptoms.

How the treatment is done: the symptoms of monkeypox usually disappear in up to 21 days without the need for any treatment, however the use may be recommended by the doctor medicines that help relieve symptoms and/or decrease the rate of virus replication, such as Tecovirimat, which is an antiviral that may be indicated in case of smallpox.

How to prevent: To prevent monkeypox, it is important to avoid contact with potentially infected animals, consume well-cooked meat, and avoid close contact with people confirmed to have smallpox of the monkeys.

14. Ebola

Ebola is a serious and highly contagious disease, so transmission of the virus can happen through contact with feces, secretions, urine, feces or vomit of contaminated people, as well as through contact with objects and / or infected surfaces.

Main symptoms: Ebola symptoms usually appear up to 21 days after contact with the virus and are initially similar to those of a flu, such as fever, nausea, sore throat, excessive tiredness and headache. However, as the virus multiplies and the disease progresses, there may be symptoms indicative of severity, such as vomiting and bloody diarrhea, blood spots or blisters on the skin, and bleeding from the nose, ear, mouth or intimate region, for example. See more about Ebola symptoms.

How the treatment is done: there is no specific treatment for Ebola, and it is recommended that the person stay in isolation to avoid the transmission of the virus and make use of medicines that can help relieve symptoms. In addition, it is important to maintain a good level of hydration and to have blood pressure and oxygen levels properly monitored.

How to prevent: The main way to prevent Ebola is to avoid outbreak areas, wash your hands with soap and water regularly, and avoid contact with people who have Ebola.In addition, it is recommended that contact with the body fluids of infected people is avoided, as well as objects that may have come into contact with these people.

15. Human Rage

Human rabies is an infectious disease caused by a virus of the Lyssavirus genus, which affects the central nervous system and causes the symptoms of the disease. This virus can be transmitted to people through contact with saliva or membranes in the eyes, mouth or nose of an infected animal, most commonly through a bite. Learn more about human rabies.

Main symptoms: the symptoms of human rabies can take up to 45 days after the bite of the infected animal to appear, being common to have general malaise, weakness, headache and low fever, for example. As the disease develops, more specific symptoms such as mental confusion, agitation, hallucinations and insomnia, for example, may be noticed.

How the treatment is done: in the confirmation of human rabies, it is necessary for the person to stay in the hospital for regular monitoring and appropriate treatment to prevent complications.

How to prevent: Human rabies prevention is done by vaccinating animals against rabies, because this way it is possible to avoid the multiplication of the virus in animals and transmission. In addition, in the case of a bite, it is recommended that the person take the rabies vaccine to prevent the development of the disease. See when to get the rabies vaccine.

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