General Practice 2022

Transmissão COVID-19: how to get coronavirusírus

Table of contents:

Transmissão COVID-19: how to get coronavirusírus
Transmissão COVID-19: how to get coronavirusírus
Anonim

Transmission of the new coronavirus, responsible for COVID-19, occurs mainly through the inhalation of droplets of saliva and respiratory secretions that can be suspended in the air when a person with COVID-19 coughs or sneezes.

Therefore, it is important that preventive measures are adopted, such as washing your hands with soap and water, avoiding staying in closed environments with many people and covering your mouth and nose whenever you need to sneeze or cough.

Coronavirus is a family of viruses responsible for respiratory changes, which usually cause fever, intense cough and difficulty breathing. Learn more about coronaviruses and the symptoms of the COVID-19 infection.

The main forms of transmission of the new coronavirus seem to be through:

1. Coughing and sneezing

The most common form of transmission of COVID-19 is through the inhalation of droplets of saliva or respiratory secretions, which can remain in the air for a few seconds or minutes after a symptomatic or asymptomatic infected person coughs or sneezes.

This form of transmission justifies the large number of people infected with the virus and, therefore, was declared by the World He alth Organization (WHO) as the main form of transmission of COVID-19, and measures such as wearing a mask must be adopted protection in public places, avoid being in closed environments with many people and always cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing at home.

According to research by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases of Japan [3], there is a 19 times greater risk of catching the virus indoors than outdoors, precisely because there is closer contact between people and for longer.

2. Contact with contaminated surfaces

Contact with contaminated surfaces is another important form of transmission of COVID-19, since, according to research carried out in the United States [2], the new coronavirus manages to remain infective for up to three days on some surfaces:

  • Plastic and stainless steel: up to 3 days;
  • Copper: 4 hours;
  • Cardboard: 24 hours.

When you put your hands on these surfaces and then rub your face, to scratch your eye or clean your mouth, for example, it is possible that you can get contaminated by the virus, which can enter the body through the mucous membranes of the mouth, eyes and nose.

For this reason, the WHO recommends frequent hand washing, especially after being in public places or at greater risk of being contaminated with droplets from coughing or sneezing by others.In addition, it is also important to disinfect surfaces regularly. See more about cleaning surfaces at home and work to protect yourself from COVID-19.

3. Fecal-oral transmission

A study carried out in February 2020 in China [1] also suggested that transmission of the new coronavirus can happen via the fecal-oral route, especially in children, because 8 of the 10 children included in the study tested positive for coronavirus on the rectal swab and negative on the nasal swab, indicating that the virus could remain in the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, a more recent study from May 2020 [4], also showed that it was possible to isolate the virus in the feces of 12 of the 28 adults studied and diagnosed with COVID-19.

Spanish researchers also verified the presence of the new coronavirus in sewage [5] and verified that SARS-CoV2 was present even before the first cases were confirmed, indicating that the virus was already circulating among the population.Another study carried out in the Netherlands [6] aimed to identify virus particles in sewage and found that some of the structures of this virus were present, which may indicate that the virus can be shed in feces.

In another study conducted between January and March 2020 [8], in 41 of 74 patients with SARS-CoV-2 positive rectal and nasal swabs, the swab nasal swab remained positive for the virus for about 16 days, while the rectal swab remained positive for about 27 days after the onset of symptoms, indicating that rectal swab can give more accurate results regarding the presence of the virus in the body.

In addition, another study [9] found that patients with a positive rectal swab for SARS-CoV-2 had lower lymphocyte counts, greater inflammatory response, and more disease, indicating that a positive rectal swab could be an indicator of more severe COVID-19. Thus, rectal testing for SARS-CoV-2 could be an effective strategy with regard to the follow-up of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by molecular tests made from nasal swab.

This route of transmission is still being studied, however the studies presented so far confirm the existence of this route of infection, which could happen through the consumption of contaminated water, inhalation of droplets or aerosols in treatment plants water or through contact with surfaces contaminated with feces containing the virus.

Despite these findings, fecal-oral transmission is not yet proven, nor whether the viral load found in these samples is sufficient to cause infection, however, it is possible that monitoring sewage water is considered a strategy for monitoring of viral spread.

Better understand how transmission happens and how to protect yourself from COVID-19:

Variants of COVID-19

The variants of COVID-19 arise due to changes in the replication process of the virus, leading to the appearance of mutations in its genetic material.According to the mutation suffered, the behavior of the virus can be altered, such as transmission capacity, disease severity and resistance to treatments.

The World He alth Organization classifies variants into variants of concern, concern and monitoring according to the characteristics of the virus after mutations. Variants of concern are those that, due to mutations in the surface protein of SARS-CoV-2, have greater transmission capacity, greater capacity to cause disease and/or greater capacity to circumvent the prevention and control measures adopted. Currently, a variant of concern is described, the omicron and its sub-variants. Learn more about the variants of COVID-19.

How not to catch the coronavirus

To prevent COVID-19 infection, it is recommended to adopt a set of protective measures that include:

  • Wash your hands well with soap and water, especially after coming into contact with someone who has the virus or who is suspected;
  • Avoid closed environments and with lots of people, because in these environments the virus can spread more easily and reach a greater number of people;
  • Wear personal protective masks to cover your nose and mouth and especially avoid transmission to others. In regions with a higher risk of infection and for he alth professionals who are caring for people with suspected coronavirus, the use of N95, N100, FFP2 or FFP3 masks is recommended.
  • Avoid contact with wild animals or animals that appear to be sick, as transmission can happen between animals and people;
  • Avoid sharing personal objects that may have saliva droplets, for example, such as cutlery and glasses.

In addition, as a way of preventing transmission, the World He alth Organization is developing and implementing measures to monitor suspected and cases of coronavirus infection so that the virulence of the virus and transmission mechanism can be understood.Check out other ways not to catch the coronavirus.

Learn more about this virus in the following video:

Is it possible to catch the virus more than once?

There are, in fact, reported cases of people catching the virus a second time after a first infection. However, and according to the CDC [7], the risk of catching COVID-19 again is very low, especially in the first 90 days after the initial infection. This happens because the body produces antibodies that guarantee natural protection against the virus, at least during the first 90 days.

What to do in case of COVID-19

If you have symptoms suggestive of COVID-19, have a positive test or have been in contact with someone infected, please enter your details to find out what to do:

  • option=b, @block-A1"' > I tested positive for COVID-19.
  • option=c, @block-A1"' > I have symptoms suggestive of COVID-19.
  • option=d, @block-A1"' > I've been in contact with positive case.
  • option=f, @block-F1"' > I've had COVID-19, but I still have symptoms.
  • option=e, @block-A1"' > I want to know more information.
  • country=en, @block-B1"}, {"condition":"option=c", "action":">country=en, @block-C1"}, {"condition":"option=d", "action":">country=en, @block-D2"}, {"condition":"option=e", "action":">country=en, @block-E1"}]' > Portugal
  • country=br, @block-B1"}, {"condition":"option=c", "action":">country=br, @block-C1"}, {"condition":"option=d", "action":">country=br, @block-D1"}, {"condition":"option=e", "action":">country=br, @block-E1"}]' >
  • Self-test.
  • Rapid antigen test.
  • RT-PCR.
  • Restart

    • I have no symptoms.
    • I only have mild symptoms (fever, cough, tiredness, headache, sore throat, loss of tasteā€¦).
    • I have moderate symptoms (very intense cough, some shortness of breath, excessive tirednessā€¦).
    • I'm really short of breath.
    • Restart

      Quarantine/isolation: how long it lasts and how to stay he althy

    • COVID-19 rapid test: how it is done, where to do it and results

    • RT-PCR for COVID-19: when to do it and results

    Restart

    Quarantine/isolation: how long it lasts and how to stay he althy

  • Treatment for COVID-19 (mild or severe cases)

Restart

Quarantine/isolation: how long it lasts and how to stay he althy

  • Treatment for COVID-19 (mild or severe cases)

    Restart

    Quarantine/isolation: how long it lasts and how to stay he althy

  • Treatment for COVID-19 (mild or severe cases)

    Restart

    Prevention of COVID-19: how to protect yourself from coronavirus

  • Saturation: what it is, normal value and what to do when low

    Restart

    • No.
    • I did a self-test
    • I did a rapid antigen test.
    • I did RT-PCR test.
    • Restart

      COVID-19 rapid test: how it is done, where to do it and results

    • RT-PCR for COVID-19: when to do it and results

    Restart

    • test=0"' > Negative
    • test=1"' > Positive
    • Restart

      It is possible that your symptoms are a sign of another infection, such as the flu or H3N2, for example. Still, we advise you to repeat the COVID-19 test within the next 3 days. Check out the differences between flu, COVID-19 and a cold.

      7 flu symptoms and how to relieve each of them

    • 12 main symptoms of H3N2 (with online test)

    • COVID, flu or cold: symptoms and when to go to the doctor

    Restart

    Quarantine/isolation: how long it lasts and how to stay he althy

  • COVID-19 tests: when to do it, types and results

    Restart

    • risk=1, @block-D5"' > I live with the person who tested positive.
    • I have been in direct contact with the positive person (less than 2 meters) for more than 15 minutes and I am a he alth professional or work in an institution for the elderly.
    • risk=0"' > The person who tests positive does not live with me.
    • Restart

      • Yes.
      • No.

      Your contact is considered high risk. You do not need to isolate yourself, but you must maintain all personal protective measures for 14 days, be aware of the appearance of symptoms and perform a COVID test as soon as possible (rapid test or RT-PCR).If the result of the 1st test is negative, you must repeat the test between the 3rd and 5th day after contact with the positive person.

      COVID-19 rapid test: how it is done, where to do it and results

    • RT-PCR for COVID-19: when to do it and results

    Restart

    Your contact is considered low risk. For this reason, you don't need to do isolation, or perform COVID test. However, you must maintain all individual protection measures (such as wearing a mask and avoiding unnecessary travel) and be aware of the appearance of symptoms in the next 14 days.

    Prevention of COVID-19: how to protect yourself from coronavirus

  • COVID-19 transmission: how you get the coronavirus

    Restart

    • When to take the 3rd dose/boost vaccine?
    • Do children need the COVID-19 vaccine?
    • What is post-COVID syndrome?
    • Restart

      When to take the 3rd and 4th dose of the COVID-19 vaccine?

    • I have another question
    • Restart

    COVID-19 vaccine in children: when to take it, doses and side effects

    Restart

    Post-COVID syndrome: what it is, symptoms and what to do

    Restart

    • Excessive fatigue.
    • Muscle pain.
    • Persistent cough.
    • Headache.
    • Difficulty concentrating/thinking.
    • Other symptoms.
    • Restart

      10 energy foods: when to consume and when to avoid

    • Post-COVID syndrome: what it is, symptoms and what to do

    Restart

    9 home treatments to relieve muscle pain

  • Post-COVID syndrome: what it is, symptoms and what to do

    Restart

    Homemade cough syrups

  • Post-COVID syndrome: what it is, symptoms and what to do

    Restart

    11 best teas for headaches (proven!)

  • Post-COVID syndrome: what it is, symptoms and what to do

    Restart

    11 exercises for memory and concentration

  • Post-COVID syndrome: what it is, symptoms and what to do

    Restart

    Post-COVID syndrome: what it is, symptoms and what to do

  • Popular topic