General Practice 2022

Prevenção da COVID-19: how to protect yourself from coronavirusírus

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Prevenção da COVID-19: how to protect yourself from coronavirusírus
Prevenção da COVID-19: how to protect yourself from coronavirusírus
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The virus responsible for COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, can be easily transmitted by coughing and sneezing, through droplets of saliva and respiratory secretions that are suspended in the air. Thus, the best way to prevent contagion is through the use of personal protective masks and frequent hand washing, in addition to being also important to maintain social distance and avoid environments with many people.

The symptoms of COVID-19 are similar to those of a common flu, and can lead to cough, fever, shortness of breath and headache. However, in some cases, it is possible that there is serious impairment of the lungs, which can cause more serious symptoms such as difficulty breathing, chest pain and mental confusion, for example.Check out the main symptoms of COVID-19 and take our online test to find out what your risk is.

General precautions to protect yourself from the virus

To protect yourself from infection by SARS-CoV-2, it is recommended that a personal protective mask of type N95, N100, FFP2 or FFP3 be used, preferably. Double-layer fabric masks and surgical masks also help prevent infection. Regardless of the type of mask, it is important that they are changed frequently and properly sanitized, in the case of fabric masks, and discarded.

In addition to the use of masks, other general precautions that help protect from the virus responsible for COVID-19 are:

  1. Frequently wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after being in contact with someone who may be sick;
  2. Avoid going to public, closed and crowded places, such as malls or gyms, preferring to stay at home as much as possible;
  3. Cover your mouth and nose whenever you need to cough or sneeze, using a disposable tissue or clothing;
  4. Avoid touching eyes, nose and mouth;
  5. Avoid sharing personal objects that may be in contact with droplets of saliva or respiratory secretions, such as cutlery, glasses and toothbrushes;
  6. Keep indoor environments well ventilated, opening the window to allow air circulation.

When it is not possible to avoid going to closed public places and with many people, it is essential to wear a protective mask and reinforce hand washing and disinfection with alcohol gel.

In the case of food, since fecal-oral transmission has not yet been proven or discarded, it is recommended that food be properly cooked and that fruits and vegetables be sanitized with a bicarbonate solution, for example, because this way it is not only possible to prevent contact with SARS-CoV-2, if it is present, but it is also possible to prevent other foodborne diseases.See how to wash fruits and vegetables well.

Vaccine against COVID-19

The vaccine against COVID-19 is the most effective way to prevent the development of serious cases of COVID-19, being considered safe by the World He alth Organization. However, vaccination does not prevent contagion and transmission of the disease, but prevents severe forms. Thus, it is important that in addition to vaccination, preventive measures are continued, such as hand washing and disinfection and the use of individual masks, for example. See more about the vaccine for COVID-19.

Watch the following video and better understand how the transmission of the coronavirus happens and how to protect yourself:

1. How to protect yourself at work

During periods of a pandemic, such as COVID-19, it is ideal that work is done from home whenever possible. However, in situations where this is not possible, there are some rules that help to reduce the risk of catching the virus in the workplace:

  • Avoid close contact with co-workers through kissing or hugging;
  • Ask sick workers to stay home and not commute to work. The same applies to people who have symptoms of unknown origin;
  • Avoid crowding in closed rooms, for example, in the cafeteria, taking shifts with few people for lunch or snacks;
  • Regularly clean all surfaces in the workplace, especially tables, chairs and all work objects such as computers or screens. For cleaning, you can use a normal detergent or a mixture of 250 ml of water with 1 tablespoon of bleach (sodium hypochlorite). Cleaning should be done with disposable gloves.

To these rules must be added general precautions against any type of virus, such as keeping windows open whenever possible, to allow air circulation and clean the environment.

2. How to protect yourself in public places

In the case of public places, such as shopping malls, cinemas, gyms, cafes, supermarkets and stores, for example, it is also important to take some precautions, such as:

  • Staying as little time as possible in the place, leaving immediately after completing the purchase;
  • Avoid using the door handles with your hands, using your elbow to open the door whenever possible;
  • Wash your hands before leaving a public place to avoid contaminating your car or house;
  • Give preference to times with fewer people.

Outdoor public places with good ventilation, such as parks or gardens, can be safely used for walking or exercising, and even if it is outdoors, if there are many people, it is recommended to keep the distancing and wearing the personal protective mask.

What to do in case of suspicion

If you have been in contact with someone infected with COVID-19, have a positive test or have symptoms suggestive of the infection, please select the option that best describes your situation and learn what to do:

  • option=b, @block-A1"' > I tested positive for COVID-19.
  • option=c, @block-A1"' > I have symptoms suggestive of COVID-19.
  • option=d, @block-A1"' > I've been in contact with positive case.
  • option=f, @block-F1"' > I've had COVID-19, but I still have symptoms.
  • option=e, @block-A1"' > I want to know more information.
  • country=en, @block-B1"}, {"condition":"option=c", "action":">country=en, @block-C1"}, {"condition":"option=d", "action":">country=en, @block-D2"}, {"condition":"option=e", "action":">country=en, @block-E1"}]' > Portugal
  • country=br, @block-B1"}, {"condition":"option=c", "action":">country=br, @block-C1"}, {"condition":"option=d", "action":">country=br, @block-D1"}, {"condition":"option=e", "action":">country=br, @block-E1"}]' >
  • Self-test.
  • Rapid antigen test.
  • RT-PCR.
  • Restart

    • I have no symptoms.
    • I only have mild symptoms (fever, cough, tiredness, headache, sore throat, loss of tasteā€¦).
    • I have moderate symptoms (very intense cough, some shortness of breath, excessive tirednessā€¦).
    • I'm really short of breath.
    • Restart

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    • No.
    • I did a self-test
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    • I did RT-PCR test.
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    • test=0"' > Negative
    • test=1"' > Positive
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      It is possible that your symptoms are a sign of another infection, such as the flu or H3N2, for example. Still, we advise you to repeat the COVID-19 test within the next 3 days. Check out the differences between flu, COVID-19 and a cold.

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    • risk=1, @block-D5"' > I live with the person who tested positive.
    • I have been in direct contact with the positive person (less than 2 meters) for more than 15 minutes and I am a he alth professional or work in an institution for the elderly.
    • risk=0"' > The person who tests positive does not live with me.
    • Restart

      • Yes.
      • No.

      Your contact is considered high risk. You do not need to isolate yourself, but you must maintain all personal protective measures for 14 days, be aware of the appearance of symptoms and perform a COVID test as soon as possible (rapid test or RT-PCR).If the result of the 1st test is negative, you must repeat the test between the 3rd and 5th day after contact with the positive person.

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    Your contact is considered low risk. For this reason, you don't need to do isolation, or perform COVID test. However, you must maintain all personal protective measures (such as wearing a mask and avoiding unnecessary travel) and be aware of the appearance of symptoms in the next 14 days.

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