Table of contents:
- Vaccination schedule between 4 and 19 years old
- COVID-19 vaccine in children
- When to go to the doctor after vaccination
From the age of 4, children need to take booster doses of some vaccines, such as polio and the one that protects against diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough, known as DTP. In addition, from the age of 5, it is still possible to administer the COVID-19 vaccine.
It is important that parents pay attention to the vaccination schedule and keep their children's vaccines up to date to avoid diseases that can have serious consequences for he alth and even harm the physical and mental development of children.
It is recommended that from the age of 6 months, the annual administration of the flu vaccine, also known as the Influenza vaccine.It is recommended that when first administered to children under 9 years of age, two doses should be given 30 days apart.
Vaccination schedule between 4 and 19 years old
The child's vaccination schedule was updated in 2020 by the Ministry of He alth, determining the vaccines and boosters that should be taken at each age, as shown below:
- Reinforcement of the Triple Bacterial Vaccine (DTP), which protects against diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough: the first three doses of the vaccine should be given in the first months of life, with the booster vaccine between 15 and 18 months, and then between 4 and 5 years of age. This vaccine is available in Basic He alth Units or in private clinics, being known as DTPa. Learn more about the DTPa vaccine.
- Booster for poliomyelitis: is administered orally from 15 months and the second booster should be done between 4 and 5 years.The first three doses of the vaccine must be made in the first months of life in the form of an injection, known as VIP. Learn more about the polio vaccine.
- Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine Booster (MenACWY), which protects against other types of meningitis: is only available in private clinics and the first doses of the vaccine should be given at 3 and 5 months. The booster should be done between 12 and 15 months and then between 5 and 6 years.
In addition to the meningitis vaccine booster, if the child has not had a DTP or polio booster, it is recommended that they do.
- HPV vaccine (girls), which protects against infection by the Human Papilloma Virus, which in addition to being responsible for HPV, prevents cervical cancer in girls: it should be administered in 3 doses in the 0-2-6 months schedule, in girls.
The HPV vaccine can be administered to people between the ages of 9 and 45, it is normally recommended that people up to 15 years of age take only 2 doses of the vaccine following the 0-6 schedule, that is, the second dose should be administered 6 months after the first administration. Learn more about the HPV vaccine.
The dengue vaccine can also be administered from the age of 9, however it is only recommended for HIV-positive children in three doses.
10 to 19 years
- Meningococcal C vaccine (conjugate), which prevents meningitis C: a single dose or a booster dose, depending on the child's vaccination status;
- HPV vaccine (in boys): must be performed between 11 and 14 years old;
- Hepatitis B Vaccine: must be given in 3 doses, if the child has not yet been vaccinated;
- Yellow fever vaccine: 1 dose of vaccine should be given if the child has not yet been vaccinated;
- Adult Duo (TD), which prevents diphtheria and tetanus: should be boosted every 10 years;
- Triplice viral, which prevents measles, mumps and rubella: 2 doses should be given if the child has not yet been vaccinated;
- DTPa vaccine booster: for children who did not receive a booster at age 9.
Watch the following video and understand the importance of vaccination for he alth:
COVID-19 vaccine in children
The vaccine against COVID-19 can be administered to children from 5 years of age, being divided into 2 doses.
In Brazil, there are 3 approved vaccines:
- Pfizer Pediatric Vaccine: for children aged 5 to 11 years, with 2 doses given 8 weeks apart;
- Pfizer vaccine adults: for children 12 years and older, given in 2 doses 8 weeks apart;
- Coronavac vaccine: for children between 6 and 17 years old who have comorbidities, divided into 2 doses 28 days apart.
The difference between Pfizer's pediatric and adult vaccine is in the amount of immunizer administered, which is 1/3 in the pediatric vaccine.
When to go to the doctor after vaccination
After taking vaccines, it is important to be aware of signs of reaction to the vaccine, such as red spots and skin irritation, fever above 39ºC, convulsions, coughing and difficulty breathing, however adverse reactions related to the vaccine are few frequent.
However, when they appear, they usually appear about 2 hours after the administration of the vaccine, and it is necessary to go to the doctor if the signs of reaction to the vaccine do not go away after 1 week. See how to alleviate the possible adverse effects of vaccines.