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Some allergy medications, such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, or immunosuppressants, for example, help relieve allergy symptoms such as itching, sneezing, swelling, eye irritation, or coughing, which are associated with allergic reactions to certain substances such as mites, pollen or food, for example.
These remedies can be found in the form of pills, ointments, drops, sprays, syrups or eye drops, and should only be used if recommended by the doctor, as the allergy can be triggered by numerous factors that must be diagnosed and forewarned. In addition, there is a wide variety of medicines adapted to each case, which must be used with medical indication according to the type of allergy to be treated.
In severe cases of allergy, with symptoms such as swelling in the mouth, tongue or throat, difficulty breathing, you should seek the nearest emergency room immediately, as it can be life-threatening. In these cases, medicines applied directly into the vein or muscle, for example, are usually administered. Know how to identify the symptoms of a severe allergic reaction.
The main types of medication that can be used in allergy cases are:
Antihistamines are the most used drugs to treat allergic symptoms, such as nasal, skin or eye allergy, allergic rhinitis or urticaria, and can be used in various formulations, such as tablets and syrups, such as case of loratadine, desloratadine, cetirizine, hydroxyzine or fexofenadine, for example, which act at a systemic level. These drugs prevent the action of histamine, a substance involved in the body's allergic response.
In addition, this class of medication is also available in eye drops to treat eye allergies, such as epinastine hydrochloride or ketotifen fumarate, for example, or in sprays or nasal drops that act directly in the nose and that can contain azelastine hydrochloride, for example, and which can be used alone or in combination with an oral antihistamine.
There are also creams and ointments with antihistamines in the composition, which may contain promethazine, clemastine or dexchlorpheniramine in the composition, and which are generally indicated for skin allergies, used in association with other oral antihistamines. Check out the main types of antihistamines for allergy.
Decongestants are often used as a complement to antihistamines for symptoms of congestion and nasal discharge, because they help to deflate inflamed tissues, relieving nasal congestion, redness and mucus. The most used decongestant drugs are pseudoephedrine, phenylephrine or oxymetazoline, for example. See other ways to relieve nasal congestion.
Corticosteroids work by reducing the inflammation associated with allergies, but they are usually used in more severe cases. These medications are also available in the form of pills, syrups, oral drops, creams, ointments, eye drops, nasal solutions or inhalation devices and should be used only on medical advice because they have many side effects. See the main side effects of corticosteroids.
Some examples of systemic corticosteroids used in allergic conditions are prednisolone, betamethasone or deflazacort, for example. Beclomethasone, mometasone, budesonide, and fluticasone are generally used as a nasal spray or through oral inhalation devices, and dexamethasone is present in many eye drops, used for eye inflammation, irritation, and redness.
The most used ointments and creams usually have hydrocortisone or betamethasone in their composition and are indicated for skin allergies.
In some cases it may be necessary to resort to the use of bronchodilators, such as salbutamol, budesonide or ipratropium bromide, for example, which facilitate the entry of air into the lungs, being indicated for the treatment of respiratory allergy such as asthma case.
These remedies are available in the form of sprays or drops for inhalation, but can only be purchased with a prescription.
Chromones, such as disodium cromoglycate or sodium nedocromil, have antiallergic and anti-inflammatory action, which prevent the release of histamine, which causes allergic reactions.
Usually, the use of chromones is preventive, as these remedies take a few days to have the maximum expected effect, so they are used continuously.
Chromones can be found in the form of a nasal spray, such as Rilan, indicated for mild asthma, improving the asthmatic response to exercise and different types of allergic substances. In addition, they may also be indicated for the treatment or prevention of seasonal allergic rhinitis.
Another way to use chromones is in the form of eye drops, such as Cromolerg, indicated for the treatment of allergic conjunctivitis. Check out other eye drops indicated for allergic conjunctivitis.
Immunosuppressants, such as pimecrolimus or tacrolimus, are anti-allergic drugs as they act by reducing the action of the immune system, which helps to alleviate the symptoms of allergy on the skin, especially in the case of atopic dermatitis or eczema.
Usually these remedies are indicated by the doctor when corticosteroid creams have not been effective in reducing the symptoms of atopic dermatitis, or when the person is allergic to corticosteroids.
Immunosuppressants can be found in the form of ointment or creams for topical use, under the skin, such as Elidel or Tarfic. See other remedies that can be used to treat atopic dermatitis.
Antileukotrienes, such as montelukast or zafirlukast, act by reducing the action of substances called leukotrienes, responsible for inflammation of the lungs or nasal mucosa, and therefore are indicated for the treatment of some respiratory allergies, such as asthma or rhinitis allergic.
Antileukotrienes can be found in the form of coated or chewable tablets, or in the form of granules, with the trade names Montelair, Aria, Piemonte or Accolate, for example, and should not be used during pregnancy or breastfeeding, unless unless directed by the doctor.
Remedy for Food Allergy
Remedies for food allergies aim to improve symptoms such as nausea, diarrhea, irritation and swelling of the mouth, eyes or tongue. The choice of remedy depends on whether the allergic reaction is mild, moderate or severe, as there is a risk of going into anaphylactic shock, which is a serious, life-threatening situation. Understand how food allergy is treated.