General Practice 2022

Anti-inflammationórios: what they are, main types and how to use

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Anti-inflammationórios: what they are, main types and how to use
Anti-inflammationórios: what they are, main types and how to use
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Anti-inflammatory drugs are drugs that decrease the production of inflammatory substances in the body, such as prostaglandins or thromboxanes, and are usually indicated for the treatment of various types of pain, such as sore throat, menstrual cramps or headache, for example, in addition to being used to lower fever.

The type of anti-inflammatory that can be used depends on the condition to be treated, and the doctor may indicate the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen or acetylsalicylic acid, for inflammation, fever or pain mild to moderate, or steroids such as dexamethasone or prednisone, in the case of inflammation related to the immune system, such as allergic rhinitis or systemic lupus erythematosus, for example.

Therefore, it is important to consult the doctor so that the diagnosis of the disease is carried out and, thus, it is possible to be guided on the best anti-inflammatory, the dose of the medication and the duration of the treatment.

The main types of anti-inflammatories include:

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, also known as NSAIDs, are medicines that act by reducing the production of inflammatory substances in the body, such as prostaglandins and thromboxanes, responsible for inflammation or pain.

Generally, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are indicated for the treatment of mild to moderate pain that does not improve with the use of analgesics, such as headache, sore throat, muscle pain, rheumatoid arthritis, menstrual cramps, or pain after surgery, for example. In addition, these remedies can be used to lower fever.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be used with medical indication, in doses and for the duration of treatment advised by the doctor.

Some examples of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are:

1. Acetylsalicylic acid

Acetylsalicylic acid, also known as AAS, is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, indicated to treat inflammation, relieve mild to moderate pain, in cases of arthritis, headache, sore throat or menstrual cramps, and lowering fever in adults and children.

In addition, in low doses, it can be used by adults as an anticoagulant, as it inhibits platelet aggregation, being indicated to reduce the risk of acute myocardial infarction, prevent stroke, angina and thrombosis in people who have some risk factors.

How to use: Aspirin should be taken orally after a meal to reduce stomach irritation.Recommended doses depend on age and the condition to be treated, and generally for the treatment of pain or fever in adults, the dose is 1 to 2 tablets of 500 mg every 4 to 8 hours, or according to medical advice, exceed 8 tablets per day. See other ways to take aspirin.

Possible side effects: Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, heartburn or stomach pain may occur during treatment with aspirin. In addition, prolonged use may increase the risk of bleeding or stomach ulcers.

Contraindications: this remedy should not be used by pregnant women or by people who have an allergy to acetylsalicylic acid, a tendency to bleeding, asthma attacks caused by the use of anti -non-steroidal inflammatory drugs, stomach or intestinal ulcers, severe kidney, liver or heart failure, or who are using anticoagulant drugs.

2. Ibuprofen

Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indicated for the relief of fever and pain, such as headache, muscle pain, toothache, migraine, rheumatoid arthritis and menstrual cramps.

In addition, ibuprofen can also be used by adults and children to relieve body pain and fever in case of flu or common cold symptoms.

How to use: The way to use ibuprofen depends on the presentation, as it can be found in drops, tablets, gelatin capsules or oral suspension. Learn how to use ibuprofen.

Possible side effects: the most common side effects are dizziness, appearance of skin lesions such as blisters or spots, stomach pain, nausea or swelling.

Contraindications: This medicine should not be used by people who have an allergy to ibuprofen or any other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, asthma, liver, kidney or heart failure, ulcer or bleeding in the stomach or intestine.Also, it should not be used by children under 6 months.

3. Diclofenac

Diclofenac has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects, being indicated to relieve pain and inflammation in cases of osteoarthritis, rheumatism, menstrual cramps and pain after surgery, for example.

This medicine can be found in the form of a tablet, drops, oral suspension, suppository, solution for injection or ointment, under the trade names Cataflam or Voltaren, or under the generic names diclofenac potassium or diclofenac sodium.

How to use: ibuprofen use depends on the presentation, and for diclofenac potassium (Voltaren) coated tablets, the normally recommended dose for adults ranges from 75 to 150 mg daily, as directed by a physician. See other ways to use diclofenac.

Possible side effects: The most common side effects of diclofenac are headache, dizziness, vertigo, pain in the pit of the stomach, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dyspepsia, cramps abdominal pain, excess intestinal gas, decreased appetite, blistering of the skin

Contraindications: Diclofenac should not be used by pregnant or breastfeeding women, by people who have stomach or intestinal ulcers, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, severe liver, kidney or heart disease, high blood pressure, asthma or rhinitis. This medicine should not be used by people who are allergic to diclofenac or any other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory.

4. Nimesulide

Nimesulide is indicated to relieve various types of pain, inflammation or fever, such as osteoarthritis, sore throat, headache and menstrual cramps, for example. See other indications of nimesulide.

Furthermore, nimesulide may be indicated to relieve pain in tendons, ligaments, muscles and joints due to trauma, when used in the form of a gel or ointment.

How to use: nimesulide in the form of a tablet, capsule, solution, drops, dispersible tablet or granules should be taken orally after a meal, at the normally recommended dose for adults is half to one 100 mg tablet every 12 hours, as directed by a physician.

Possible side effects: The most common side effects of nimesulide are diarrhea, nausea or vomiting. In addition, although rare, itchy or swollen skin, excessive sweating, constipation, increased intestinal gas, gastritis, dizziness, lightheadedness, or increased blood pressure may occur.

Contraindications: Nimesulide should not be used by children under 12 years of age, pregnant or breastfeeding women, or by people who have an ulcer or bleeding in the stomach or bowel, blood clotting problems, severe heart, kidney or liver failure, asthma, rhinitis or nasal polyps. This remedy should also not be used by people who are allergic to nimesulide or any other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory.

Corticosteroids

Corticosteroids, also known as corticosteroids or cortisone, are synthetic drugs produced in the laboratory based on hormones produced by the adrenal glands, which have a potent anti-inflammatory action.

Generally, corticosteroids are used to reduce inflammation or decrease the activity of the body's immune system related to he alth problems such as rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, irritable bowel syndrome, or even for the treatment of severe allergic reactions or anaphylactic reactions.

Corticosteroids should only be taken with medical indication and regular consultations to monitor the treatment and the appearance of side effects. In addition, the use of corticosteroids should not be interrupted on their own, and the doctor should be guided by the doctor to reduce the doses gradually, when they are used in high doses or for a long time.

Some examples of corticosteroids are:

1. Dexamethasone

Dexamethasone is indicated to treat a variety of acute or chronic allergic and inflammatory conditions, including rheumatic, skin, eye, glandular, pulmonary, blood, and gastrointestinal disorders.

This remedy can be found in the form of tablets, elixir, injectable solution, dermatological cream or eye drops, and must be used with medical indication.

How to use it: How to use dexamethasone and its dosage can vary greatly according to the problem to be treated, age and other factors of the he alth history, being that the normally recommended doses of tablets or elixir for adults is between 0.75 to 15 mg per day, as directed by a doctor. See other ways to use dexamethasone.

Possible side effects: The most common side effects of dexamethasone are fluid retention, congestive heart failure, increased blood pressure, muscle weakness or wasting, osteoporosis, bones, gastrointestinal problems, delayed wound healing, acne, red patches of skin, bruising, excessive sweating and dermatitis, hives or angioedema.

Contraindications: Dexamethasone should not be used by people with systemic fungal infections or allergy to sulfites, or any other components present in the formula. Also, it should not be given to people who have recently had live virus vaccines. In the case of pregnant or breastfeeding women, this medication should only be used under the guidance of the obstetrician.

2. Betamethasone

Betamethasone has potent anti-inflammatory action, being indicated for the treatment of various he alth problems that affect the skin, mucous membranes, glands, bones, muscles or respiratory system, such as dermatitis, urticaria, rheumatoid arthritis, sciatica pain, bronchitis, asthma and lupus, for example.

This remedy can be found as betamethasone dipropionate, betamethasone valerate or betamethasone disodium phosphate, in the form of an ointment, cream, lotion, topical solution, tablet or injection, and should only be used on medical advice.

How to use: Betamethasone doses vary according to the presentation, and normally for tablets, the doses normally recommended for adults vary between 0.25 mg to 8, 0 mg per day, as directed by a physician. Learn how to use betamethasone ointment or cream.

Possible side effects: betamethasone side effects are dose and time related to treatment and include high blood pressure, itching, weakness, muscle pain or wasting, osteoporosis, vertebral fractures, inflammation of the pancreas, abdominal swelling, ulcerative esopharyngitis, and impaired tissue healing.

Contraindications: Betamethasone should not be used by children, pregnant or nursing women unless recommended by a physician. In addition, this medicine should not be used by people who have an active and/or systemic infection, allergy to the components of the formula or to other corticosteroids.

3. Prednisone

Prednisone is a corticosteroid indicated to treat rheumatism, synovitis, dermatitis, severe psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, allergic rhinitis and allergic reactions to medications, for example. See other indications for prednisone.

This remedy has a potent anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, antiallergic and immunosuppressive effect, and should only be used with medical indication.

How to use: Prednisone should be taken orally, and the normally recommended dose for adults can vary from 5 mg to 60 mg per day, depending on the condition to be be treated.

Possible side effects: The most common side effects of prednisone are increased appetite, poor digestion, stomach ulcer, pancreatitis or ulcerative esophagitis, nervousness, tiredness, or insomnia.

Contraindications: This medicine should not be used by people with systemic fungal infections or uncontrolled infections or by people who are allergic to prednisone or any of the components of the formula.Also, prednisone should not be used by women who are pregnant or breastfeeding unless recommended by their doctor. Prednisone is also not recommended for people with advanced liver disease, as it is metabolized by the liver.

4. Prednisolone

Prednisolone is a steroid indicated for the treatment of problems such as rheumatism, psoriatic or rheumatoid arthritis, synovitis, hormonal changes, systemic lupus erythematosus and acute rheumatic carditis, bronchial asthma, pemphigus, dermatitis, thrombocytopenic purpura, as well as can be used in the treatment of cancer.

Prednisolone is a steroid similar to prednisone, however, it is not metabolized by the liver and is normally recommended in cases where a person has liver disease.

How to use: Prednisolone varies a lot depending on weight, age, disease to be treated and presentation, as it can be found in the form of tablets, oral suspension or drops.Thus, the normally recommended doses of prednisolone in the form of tablets for adults range from 5 to 60 mg per day, which is equivalent to 1 tablet of 5 mg or 3 tablets of 20 mg per day, and should be taken under medical supervision.

Possible side effects: Prednisolone can cause side effects such as increased appetite, poor digestion, stomach ulcer, pancreatitis, ulcerative esophagitis, nervousness, tiredness or insomnia. In addition, prednisolone may cause reduced carbohydrate tolerance or latent diabetes mellitus.

Contraindications: This medicine should not be used by people who are allergic to prednisolone or any other type of corticosteroid, or by people who have fungal or other infections uncontrolled systems. Prednisolone should also not be used by pregnant or breastfeeding women without medical advice.

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