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General Practice 2023

Allergy symptoms (food, skin, respiratory, and medications)

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Allergy symptoms (food, skin, respiratory, and medications)
Allergy symptoms (food, skin, respiratory, and medications)

Allergy symptoms arise when the body comes into contact with a harmless substance, such as dust, pollen, milk protein or egg, but which the immune system sees as dangerous, producing an exaggerated response.

Depending on the place and substance that caused the allergy, symptoms can vary, making it more difficult to identify the cause. In general, allergies cause severe symptoms such as itching, redness of the skin, swelling in the mouth and shortness of breath, while food intolerance causes less severe symptoms such as stomach pain and diarrhea.

1. Food allergy


Food allergy symptoms appear after eating allergenic foods, such as strawberries, shellfish, peanuts, milk or wild berries, for example, and include:

  • Tingling or itching in the mouth;
  • Itchy, reddened, shaving skin;
  • Swelling and itching of the neck, lips, face or tongue;
  • Abdominal pain;
  • Diarrhea, nausea or vomiting;
  • Hoarseness.

In more severe cases, or when treatment is not started as soon as possible, the patient may develop symptoms of anaphylaxis, which is a serious condition that has to be treated in the hospital and which includes symptoms such as difficulty breathing, swelling in the throat, sudden drop in blood pressure or fainting. Know how to identify an anaphylaxis and what to do.

2. Skin allergy


Symptoms of skin allergy are common in cases of a weakened immune system, drug allergy or infectious diseases and usually include the appearance of blistering hives, itching, redness and swelling of the skin.

Generally, these symptoms are caused by direct contact with substances such as perfumes, nickel, enamels or latex, but they can also be caused by the release of histamine, originating from a respiratory or food allergy.

To relieve skin allergy symptoms, wash the area with hypoallergenic soap and water, apply a moisturizing cream and take an antihistamine remedy such as Hixizine or Hydroxyzine, prescribed by your doctor. However, in cases that take time to pass, it is recommended to consult a dermatologist, as it may be necessary to take allergy medication. Learn how to identify and treat skin allergy.

3. Respiratory allergy


Respiratory allergy symptoms usually affect the nose, throat and skin, appearing:

  • Nose secretion, leaving the nose stuffy;
  • Itchy nose;
  • Constant sneezing;
  • Red nose;
  • Dry cough and difficulty breathing;
  • Redness in the eyes and tearing;
  • Headaches.

Respiratory allergy can arise when the airways come into contact with substances such as dust, mold or fur from cats or other animals, and should be treated in the hospital with the use of medicines that make breathing easier, such as Salbutamol or Fenoterol.

Respiratory allergy does not cause asthma, but it can worsen the condition of an asthmatic patient, and in these cases the patient should use the pump prescribed by the doctor and take an antihistamine medicine to reduce allergy symptoms.

4. Drug allergy


Drug allergy causes symptoms similar to other types of allergies, such as the appearance of red bumps on the skin, itching, hives, swelling, asthma, rhinitis, diarrhea, headache and intestinal cramps.

These symptoms appear when the drug is started, and improve when the treatment is stopped. After identifying a drug that caused an allergic reaction, it is important to always inform the doctor of the name before any treatment or surgery, to prevent the problem from recurring.

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